Frequency domain multiplexing readout for large arrays of transition-edge sensors

D. Vaccaro (Corresponding Author), H. Akamatsu, L. Gottardi, J. van der Kuur, K. Nagayoshi, E. Taralli, M. de Wit, M. P. Bruijn, A. J. van der Linden, B. J. van Leeuwen, P. van der Hulst, K. Ravensberg, C. P. de Vries, Mikko Kiviranta, J. R. Gao, J. W.A. den Herder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We report our most recent progress and demonstration of a frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) readout technology for transition-edge sensor (TES) arrays, both of which we have been developing in the framework of the X-IFU instrument on board the future Athena X-ray telescope. Using Ti/Au TES micro-calorimeters, high-Q LC filters and analog/digital electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifiers from VTT Finland, we demonstrated the feasibility of our FDM readout technology, with the simultaneous readout of 37 pixels with an energy resolution of 2.23 eV at an energy of 6 keV. We finally outline our plans for further scaling up and improving our technology in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number167727
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Athena X-IFU
  • Frequency domain multiplexing
  • Squid
  • Superconductivity
  • Transition-edge sensors
  • X-ray micro-calorimeters


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