Frost resistance of F-concrete

Erkki Vesikari

Research output: Book/ReportReport

1 Citation (Scopus)


Freeze-thaw tests and frost-salt tests were carried out for evaluating the frost resistance of F-concrete. Porosity and microstructural studies were included in the lest programme. The frost resistance and frost-salt resistance of F-concrete are good whenever the water-cement ratio is smaller than or equal to 0.4. The air content appears to have virtually no influence on the frost resistance or frost-salt resistance of F-concrcte. In the frost-salt test, however, rapid primary scaling takes place and increases concomitantly with the age of concrete. This phenomenon is probably related to carbonation at the surface of test specimens. Inner cracking of F-concrete is probably due to hydration shrinkage. Cracking, however, does not have a clearly detrimental effect on the frost resistance of F-concrete.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages38
ISBN (Print)951-38-2832-8
Publication statusPublished - 1987
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesValtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports


  • frost resistance
  • F-concrete
  • concrete durability
  • freezing test
  • salts
  • evaluating
  • porosity
  • microstructure
  • test programs
  • cracking


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