Freeze-thaw tests and frost-salt tests were carried out
for evaluating the frost resistance of F-concrete.
Porosity and microstructural studies were included in the
The frost resistance and frost-salt resistance of
F-concrete are good whenever the water-cement ratio is
smaller than or equal to 0.4. The air content appears to
have virtually no influence on the frost resistance or
frost-salt resistance of F-concrcte.
In the frost-salt test, however, rapid primary scaling
takes place and increases concomitantly with the age of
concrete. This phenomenon is probably related to
carbonation at the surface of test specimens.
Inner cracking of F-concrete is probably due to hydration
shrinkage. Cracking, however, does not have a clearly
detrimental effect on the frost resistance of F-concrete.
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Number of pages||38|
|Publication status||Published - 1987|
|MoE publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Series||Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports|
- frost resistance
- concrete durability
- freezing test
- test programs