Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses

Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

In 2009-2011, a comprehensive project on urban buses was carried out in cooperation with IEA's Implementing Agreements on Alternative Motor Fuels and Bioenergy, with input from additional IEA Implementing Agreements. The objective of the project was to generate unbiased and solid data for use by policy- and decision-makers responsible for public transport using buses. The project comprised four major parts: (1) a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment of alternative fuel pathways, (2) an assessment of bus end-use (tank-to-wheel, TTW) performance, (3) combining WTT and TTW data into well-to-wheel (WTW) data and (4) a cost assessment, including indirect as well as direct costs. Experts at Argonne National Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada and VTT worked on the WTT part. In the TTW part, Environment Canada and VTT generated emission and fuel consumption data by running 21 different buses on chassis dynamometers, generating data for some 180 combinations of vehicle, fuel and driving cycle. The fuels covered included diesel, synthetic diesel, various types of biodiesel fuels, additive treated ethanol, methane and DME. Six different hybrid vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The TTW work was topped up by on-road measurements (AVL MTC) as well as some engine dynamometer work (von Thünen Institute). Over the last 15 years, tightening emission regulations and improved engine and exhaust after-treatment technology have reduced regulated emissions by a factor of 10:1 and particulate numbers with a factor of 100:1. Hybridization or light-weighting reduce fuel consumption 20-30%, but otherwise the improvements in fuel efficiency have not been that spectacular. The driving cycle affects regulated emissions and fuel consumption by a factor of 5:1. The fuel effects are at maximum 2.5:1 for regulated emissions (particulates), but as high as 100:1 for WTW greenhouse emissions. WTW energy use varies by a factor on 2.5:1.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages402
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7869-6
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7868-9
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

NameVTT Technology
PublisherVTT
No.46
ISSN (Print)2242-1211
ISSN (Electronic)2242-122X

Fingerprint

Energy efficiency
Wheels
Fuel consumption
Dynamometers
Engines
Fuel additives
Particulate emissions
Alternative fuels
Chassis
Greenhouses
Hybrid vehicles
Natural resources
Biodiesel
Costs
Methane
Ethanol

Keywords

  • urban buses
  • energy consumption
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • exhaust emissions
  • costs
  • alternative fuels
  • WTT
  • TTW
  • WTW

Cite this

Nylund, N-O., & Koponen, K. (2012). Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses: Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 46
Nylund, Nils-Olof ; Koponen, Kati. / Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses : Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 402 p. (VTT Technology; No. 46).
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Nylund, N-O & Koponen, K 2012, Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses: Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance. VTT Technology, no. 46, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses : Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance. / Nylund, Nils-Olof; Koponen, Kati.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 402 p. (VTT Technology; No. 46).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

TY - BOOK

T1 - Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses

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AU - Nylund, Nils-Olof

AU - Koponen, Kati

PY - 2012

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N2 - In 2009-2011, a comprehensive project on urban buses was carried out in cooperation with IEA's Implementing Agreements on Alternative Motor Fuels and Bioenergy, with input from additional IEA Implementing Agreements. The objective of the project was to generate unbiased and solid data for use by policy- and decision-makers responsible for public transport using buses. The project comprised four major parts: (1) a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment of alternative fuel pathways, (2) an assessment of bus end-use (tank-to-wheel, TTW) performance, (3) combining WTT and TTW data into well-to-wheel (WTW) data and (4) a cost assessment, including indirect as well as direct costs. Experts at Argonne National Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada and VTT worked on the WTT part. In the TTW part, Environment Canada and VTT generated emission and fuel consumption data by running 21 different buses on chassis dynamometers, generating data for some 180 combinations of vehicle, fuel and driving cycle. The fuels covered included diesel, synthetic diesel, various types of biodiesel fuels, additive treated ethanol, methane and DME. Six different hybrid vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The TTW work was topped up by on-road measurements (AVL MTC) as well as some engine dynamometer work (von Thünen Institute). Over the last 15 years, tightening emission regulations and improved engine and exhaust after-treatment technology have reduced regulated emissions by a factor of 10:1 and particulate numbers with a factor of 100:1. Hybridization or light-weighting reduce fuel consumption 20-30%, but otherwise the improvements in fuel efficiency have not been that spectacular. The driving cycle affects regulated emissions and fuel consumption by a factor of 5:1. The fuel effects are at maximum 2.5:1 for regulated emissions (particulates), but as high as 100:1 for WTW greenhouse emissions. WTW energy use varies by a factor on 2.5:1.

AB - In 2009-2011, a comprehensive project on urban buses was carried out in cooperation with IEA's Implementing Agreements on Alternative Motor Fuels and Bioenergy, with input from additional IEA Implementing Agreements. The objective of the project was to generate unbiased and solid data for use by policy- and decision-makers responsible for public transport using buses. The project comprised four major parts: (1) a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment of alternative fuel pathways, (2) an assessment of bus end-use (tank-to-wheel, TTW) performance, (3) combining WTT and TTW data into well-to-wheel (WTW) data and (4) a cost assessment, including indirect as well as direct costs. Experts at Argonne National Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada and VTT worked on the WTT part. In the TTW part, Environment Canada and VTT generated emission and fuel consumption data by running 21 different buses on chassis dynamometers, generating data for some 180 combinations of vehicle, fuel and driving cycle. The fuels covered included diesel, synthetic diesel, various types of biodiesel fuels, additive treated ethanol, methane and DME. Six different hybrid vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The TTW work was topped up by on-road measurements (AVL MTC) as well as some engine dynamometer work (von Thünen Institute). Over the last 15 years, tightening emission regulations and improved engine and exhaust after-treatment technology have reduced regulated emissions by a factor of 10:1 and particulate numbers with a factor of 100:1. Hybridization or light-weighting reduce fuel consumption 20-30%, but otherwise the improvements in fuel efficiency have not been that spectacular. The driving cycle affects regulated emissions and fuel consumption by a factor of 5:1. The fuel effects are at maximum 2.5:1 for regulated emissions (particulates), but as high as 100:1 for WTW greenhouse emissions. WTW energy use varies by a factor on 2.5:1.

KW - urban buses

KW - energy consumption

KW - greenhouse gas emissions

KW - exhaust emissions

KW - costs

KW - alternative fuels

KW - WTT

KW - TTW

KW - WTW

M3 - Report

SN - 978-951-38-7868-9

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Nylund N-O, Koponen K. Fuel and Technology Alternatives for Buses: Overall Energy Efficiency and Emission Performance. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 402 p. (VTT Technology; No. 46).