Fuel Staging and Air Staging to Reduce Nitrogen Emission in the CFB Combustion of Bark and Coal

Heidi Saastamoinen (Corresponding Author), Timo Leino

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    Nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) formation in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion can be controlled by air staging and fuel staging. An extensive test campaign was carried out with a pilot-scale CFB test rig to observe the possibilities of the methods in the spruce bark and bituminous coal combustion as well as in co-combustion. Fuel staging with liquid petroleum gas (LPG) was done alternately from three locations with three intensities. Air staging was studied alone and during the fuel staging experiment. The experimental trends for NO and N2O emission formation during fuel staging and air staging are presented in this study. It was observed that air staging and fuel staging can have opposing effects on nitrogen oxide emission formation, and thus, when used together, a clear understanding of the fuel behavior and conditions, as well as NOx chemistry in the combustor, is needed. Under the tested conditions, it was observed that if air staging is effective, then fuel staging does not bring further benefits in the NO reduction. Instead, the LPG feed can increase the emission in the lack of oxygen. However, if it is not possible to carry out air staging, then fuel staging can be used in generating oxygen-lean reducing zones for NO. The N2O concentration was also further reduced with LPG in the tests with effective air staging.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5732-5739
    JournalEnergy & Fuels
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2019
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    This work was done within the project “Biofficiency - Highly efficient biomass CHP plants by handling ash-related problems” carried out in European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 727616.


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