### Abstract

*f*including as special cases strong plasma pressure profile evolution by transport and formation of neoclassical flows. This is made feasible by full

*f*formulation and by recording the charge density changes due to the ion polarization drift and electron acceleration along the local magnetic field while particles are advanced. The code has been validated against the linear predictions of the unstable ion temperature gradient mode growth rates and frequencies. Convergence and saturation in both turbulent and neoclassical limit of the ion heat conductivity is obtained with numerical noise well suppressed by a sufficiently large number of simulation particles. A first global full

*f*validation of the neoclassical radial electric field in the presence of turbulence for a heated collisional tokamak plasma is obtained. At high Mach number (

*M*

_{p}∼1) of the poloidal flow, the radial electric field is significantly enhanced over the standard neoclassical prediction. The neoclassical radial electric field together with the related GAM oscillations is found to regulate the turbulent heat and particle diffusion levels particularly strongly in a large aspect ratio tokamak at low plasma current.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 5582-5609 |

Journal | Journal of Computational Physics |

Volume | 227 |

Issue number | 11 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2008 |

MoE publication type | A1 Journal article-refereed |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- particle simulation
- plasma
- turbulence
- Tokamak
- fusion energy

### Cite this

*f*gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport.

*Journal of Computational Physics*,

*227*(11), 5582-5609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013

}

*f*gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport',

*Journal of Computational Physics*, vol. 227, no. 11, pp. 5582-5609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013

**Full f gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport.** / Heikkinen, Jukka A. (Corresponding Author); Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Ogando, F.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Scientific › peer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Full f gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport

AU - Heikkinen, Jukka A.

AU - Janhunen, S. J.

AU - Kiviniemi, T. P.

AU - Ogando, F.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - A gyrokinetic particle-in-cell approach with direct implicit construction of the coefficient matrix of the Poisson equation from ion polarization and electron parallel nonlinearity is described and applied in global electrostatic toroidal plasma transport simulations. The method is applicable for calculation of the evolution of particle distribution function f including as special cases strong plasma pressure profile evolution by transport and formation of neoclassical flows. This is made feasible by full f formulation and by recording the charge density changes due to the ion polarization drift and electron acceleration along the local magnetic field while particles are advanced. The code has been validated against the linear predictions of the unstable ion temperature gradient mode growth rates and frequencies. Convergence and saturation in both turbulent and neoclassical limit of the ion heat conductivity is obtained with numerical noise well suppressed by a sufficiently large number of simulation particles. A first global full f validation of the neoclassical radial electric field in the presence of turbulence for a heated collisional tokamak plasma is obtained. At high Mach number (Mp∼1) of the poloidal flow, the radial electric field is significantly enhanced over the standard neoclassical prediction. The neoclassical radial electric field together with the related GAM oscillations is found to regulate the turbulent heat and particle diffusion levels particularly strongly in a large aspect ratio tokamak at low plasma current.

AB - A gyrokinetic particle-in-cell approach with direct implicit construction of the coefficient matrix of the Poisson equation from ion polarization and electron parallel nonlinearity is described and applied in global electrostatic toroidal plasma transport simulations. The method is applicable for calculation of the evolution of particle distribution function f including as special cases strong plasma pressure profile evolution by transport and formation of neoclassical flows. This is made feasible by full f formulation and by recording the charge density changes due to the ion polarization drift and electron acceleration along the local magnetic field while particles are advanced. The code has been validated against the linear predictions of the unstable ion temperature gradient mode growth rates and frequencies. Convergence and saturation in both turbulent and neoclassical limit of the ion heat conductivity is obtained with numerical noise well suppressed by a sufficiently large number of simulation particles. A first global full f validation of the neoclassical radial electric field in the presence of turbulence for a heated collisional tokamak plasma is obtained. At high Mach number (Mp∼1) of the poloidal flow, the radial electric field is significantly enhanced over the standard neoclassical prediction. The neoclassical radial electric field together with the related GAM oscillations is found to regulate the turbulent heat and particle diffusion levels particularly strongly in a large aspect ratio tokamak at low plasma current.

KW - particle simulation

KW - plasma

KW - turbulence

KW - Tokamak

KW - fusion energy

U2 - 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013

DO - 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013

M3 - Article

VL - 227

SP - 5582

EP - 5609

JO - Journal of Computational Physics

JF - Journal of Computational Physics

SN - 0021-9991

IS - 11

ER -

*f*gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport. Journal of Computational Physics. 2008;227(11):5582-5609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013