Functional inks and indicators for Smart Tag based intelligent packaging applications

Liisa Hakola (Corresponding Author), Kaisa Vehmas, Maria Smolander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Smart Tags are functional, information transmitting elements that combine 2D barcodes and environmental sensing into a cost effective tag that can be attached to e.g. product packages, where additional elements should not increase the product costs significantly. Important feature of these Smart Tags is that they can be attached to products in very high-speed production lines, which makes
them suitable to fast moving consumer goods. Because the Smart Tags are sensitive to environmental conditions, they are dynamic, but they also enable context aware services as each of them can be unique. The enabling technologies behind these Smart Tags are i) 2D barcodes and ii) functional inks, such as
thermochromic and photochromic inks, and iii) printed visual indicators. In this paper, different ink and indicator technologies are used to build Smart Tags. Both commercial inks and developmental grades are in focus. Furthermore, it is
evaluated if these tags can be detected by mobile phone reader.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Packaging Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • smart tags
  • packaging
  • barcode


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