Fungal hydrophobins in the barley-to-beer chain

Tuija Sarlin (Corresponding Author), Arvi Vilpola, Erja Kotaviita, Juhani Olkku, Auli Haikara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Fungal hydrophobins have been shown to induce gushing of beer. In order to study the occurrence and fate of hydrophobins at different stages of the production chain of beer, barley samples artificially infected in the field with Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum and F. poae were collected during the growing period as well as during various stages of the malting process. In addition, naturally infected malt was brewed in pilot scale and samples were collected throughout the process. The samples were assayed for hydrophobin content using an ELISA method. The results showed that fungi produced hydrophobins that accumulated during barley grain development in the field, but that production was more pronounced during malting. Prolonged storage of barley tended to reduce the ability of fungi to produce hydrophobins in malting. Studies on the fate of hydrophobins during the brewing process revealed that mashing released hydrophobins from the malt into the wort. Some loss of hydrophobins occurred throughout the brewing process with spent grains, cold break (wort boiling) and surplus yeast. In addition, the beer filtration step reduced hydrophobin levels. Despite the substantial loss of hydrophobins during brewing, the level was high enough to induce the gushing detected in the final beer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-153
JournalJournal of the Institute of Brewing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • brewing
  • Fusarium
  • hydrophobins
  • malting

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