Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (REFUEL): Final report

Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Anders Brink, Matti Happonen, Juha Heikkilä, Tuomo Hulkkonen, Matteo Imperato, Ossi Kaario, Päivi Koponen, Martti Larmi, Kalle Lehto, Timo Murtonen, Teemu Sarjovaara, Aki Tilli, Esa Väisänen

    Research output: Book/ReportReport


    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task "Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport" of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) project was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Åbo Akademi University (ÅAU). The project was funded by TEKES, Wärtsilä Oyj, Neste Oil Oyj, Agco Sisu Power, Aker Arctic Technology Oy and the research partners listed above.
    Modern renewable diesel fuels have excellent physical and chemical properties, in comparison to traditional crude oil based fuels. Purely paraffinic fuels do not contain aromatic compounds and they are totally sulphur free. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) was studied as an example of paraffinic high cetane number (CN) diesel fuels.
    HVO has no storage and low temperature problems like the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have. The combustion properties are better than those of crude oil based fuels and FAME, because they have very high cetane numbers and contain no polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). With low HVO density, viscosity and distillation temperatures, these advantageous properties allow far more advanced combustion strategies, such as very high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates or extreme Miller timings, than has been possible with current fossil fuels. The implementation of these advanced combustion technologies, together with the novel renewable diesel fuel, brought significant nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) emission reductions with no efficiency losses.
    The objective of ReFuel project was to develop new extremely low emission combustion technologies for new renewable fuels in compression ignition engines. The target was to decrease emissions at least by 70%. The scope was to utilize the physical and chemical properties of the renewable fuels that differ from properties of the traditional crude oil based fuels and to develop optimum combustion technologies for them. The project focused firstly, on paraffinic high cetane number fuels i.e. hydrotreated vegetable oil fuel as a typical representative of this kind of fuel and secondly, on fuels with high content of oxygenates. This was implemented by blending oxygenate to HVO fuel.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherAalto University
    Number of pages162
    ISBN (Electronic)978-952-60-4942-7
    ISBN (Print)978-952-60-4941-0
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

    Publication series

    SeriesAalto University Publication Series Science + Technology


    • diesel engines
    • emissions
    • efficiency
    • alternative fuel
    • paraffinic fuel
    • HVO
    • synthetic fuel
    • Cetane number
    • EGR
    • Miller cycle
    • oxygenate


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