Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices

T. Loarer, C. Brosset, J. Bucalossi, P. Coad, G. Esser, J. Hogan, Jari Likonen, M. Mayer, Ph. Morgan, V. Philipps, V. Rohde, J. Roth, M. Rubel, E. Tsitrone, A. Widdowson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

The evaluation of hydrogenic retention in present tokamaks is of crucial importance to estimate the expected tritium (T) vessel inventory in ITER, limited from safety considerations to 350 g. In the framework of the European Task Force on Plasma Wall Interaction (EU TF on PWI) efforts are underway to investigate gas balance and fuel retention during discharges, and to compare the data obtained with those from post-mortem analysis of in-vessel components exposed over whole experimental campaigns. This paper summarizes the principal findings from coordinated studies on gas balance and fuel retention from a number of European tokamaks, namely, ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG), JET, TEXTOR and Tore Supra (TS). For most devices, the long-term retention fraction deduced from integrated particle balance is ~10–20%. This is larger than the ~3–4% deduced from post-mortem analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs). However, from the database available for tokamaks with their main PFCs made of carbon, the important conclusion is that the T inventory limit (set by the working guideline for operations) could be reached in ITER within fewer than 100 discharges. This, therefore, would seriously impact on operation of the device unless efficient T removal processes are developed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1112-1120
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume47
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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fusion
gases
vessels
tritium
safety
evaluation
carbon
estimates
interactions

Keywords

  • fusion energy
  • fusion reactors
  • plasma
  • plasma-wall interactions
  • ITER
  • JET
  • tokamak
  • tritium
  • tritium retention

Cite this

Loarer, T., Brosset, C., Bucalossi, J., Coad, P., Esser, G., Hogan, J., ... Widdowson, A. (2007). Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices. Nuclear Fusion, 47(9), 1112-1120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/9/007
Loarer, T. ; Brosset, C. ; Bucalossi, J. ; Coad, P. ; Esser, G. ; Hogan, J. ; Likonen, Jari ; Mayer, M. ; Morgan, Ph. ; Philipps, V. ; Rohde, V. ; Roth, J. ; Rubel, M. ; Tsitrone, E. ; Widdowson, A. / Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2007 ; Vol. 47, No. 9. pp. 1112-1120.
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Loarer, T, Brosset, C, Bucalossi, J, Coad, P, Esser, G, Hogan, J, Likonen, J, Mayer, M, Morgan, P, Philipps, V, Rohde, V, Roth, J, Rubel, M, Tsitrone, E & Widdowson, A 2007, 'Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1112-1120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/9/007

Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices. / Loarer, T.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Coad, P.; Esser, G.; Hogan, J.; Likonen, Jari; Mayer, M.; Morgan, Ph.; Philipps, V.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rubel, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Widdowson, A.

In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 47, No. 9, 2007, p. 1112-1120.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices

AU - Loarer, T.

AU - Brosset, C.

AU - Bucalossi, J.

AU - Coad, P.

AU - Esser, G.

AU - Hogan, J.

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Mayer, M.

AU - Morgan, Ph.

AU - Philipps, V.

AU - Rohde, V.

AU - Roth, J.

AU - Rubel, M.

AU - Tsitrone, E.

AU - Widdowson, A.

PY - 2007

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N2 - The evaluation of hydrogenic retention in present tokamaks is of crucial importance to estimate the expected tritium (T) vessel inventory in ITER, limited from safety considerations to 350 g. In the framework of the European Task Force on Plasma Wall Interaction (EU TF on PWI) efforts are underway to investigate gas balance and fuel retention during discharges, and to compare the data obtained with those from post-mortem analysis of in-vessel components exposed over whole experimental campaigns. This paper summarizes the principal findings from coordinated studies on gas balance and fuel retention from a number of European tokamaks, namely, ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG), JET, TEXTOR and Tore Supra (TS). For most devices, the long-term retention fraction deduced from integrated particle balance is ~10–20%. This is larger than the ~3–4% deduced from post-mortem analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs). However, from the database available for tokamaks with their main PFCs made of carbon, the important conclusion is that the T inventory limit (set by the working guideline for operations) could be reached in ITER within fewer than 100 discharges. This, therefore, would seriously impact on operation of the device unless efficient T removal processes are developed.

AB - The evaluation of hydrogenic retention in present tokamaks is of crucial importance to estimate the expected tritium (T) vessel inventory in ITER, limited from safety considerations to 350 g. In the framework of the European Task Force on Plasma Wall Interaction (EU TF on PWI) efforts are underway to investigate gas balance and fuel retention during discharges, and to compare the data obtained with those from post-mortem analysis of in-vessel components exposed over whole experimental campaigns. This paper summarizes the principal findings from coordinated studies on gas balance and fuel retention from a number of European tokamaks, namely, ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG), JET, TEXTOR and Tore Supra (TS). For most devices, the long-term retention fraction deduced from integrated particle balance is ~10–20%. This is larger than the ~3–4% deduced from post-mortem analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs). However, from the database available for tokamaks with their main PFCs made of carbon, the important conclusion is that the T inventory limit (set by the working guideline for operations) could be reached in ITER within fewer than 100 discharges. This, therefore, would seriously impact on operation of the device unless efficient T removal processes are developed.

KW - fusion energy

KW - fusion reactors

KW - plasma

KW - plasma-wall interactions

KW - ITER

KW - JET

KW - tokamak

KW - tritium

KW - tritium retention

U2 - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/9/007

DO - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/9/007

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 1112

EP - 1120

JO - Nuclear Fusion

JF - Nuclear Fusion

SN - 0029-5515

IS - 9

ER -

Loarer T, Brosset C, Bucalossi J, Coad P, Esser G, Hogan J et al. Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices. Nuclear Fusion. 2007;47(9):1112-1120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/9/007