Gas-phase particle size distributions and lead loss during spray pyrolysis of (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

Abhijit Gurav, Toivo Kodas, Jorma Joutsensaari, Esko Kauppinen, Riitta Zilliacus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Gas-phase particle size distributions and lead loss were measured during formation of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and pure PbO particles by spray pyrolysis at different temperatures. A differential mobility analyzer (DMA) in conjunction with a condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to monitor the gas-phase particle size distributions, and a Berner-type low-pressure impactor was used to obtain mass size distributions and size-classified samples for chemical analysis.
For (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, as the processing temperature was raised from 200 to 700 °C, the number average particle size decreased due to metal nitrate decomposition, intraparticle reactions forming mixed-metal oxides and particle densification.
The geometric number mean particle diameter was 0.12 μm at 200 °C and reduced to 0.08 and 0.07 μm, respectively, at 700 and 900 °C. When the reactor temperature was raised from 700 and 800 °C to 900 °C, a large number (∼107 no./cm3) of new ultrafine particles were formed from PbO vapor released from the particles and the reactor walls. Particles made at temperatures up to 700 °C maintained their initial stoichiometry over the whole range of particle sizes monitorcd; however, those made at 800 °C and above were heavily depleted in lead in the size range 0.5–5.0 μm.
The evaporative losses of lead oxide from (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O particles were compared with the losses from PbO particles to gain insight into the pathways involved in lead loss and the role of intraparticle processes in controlling it.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1644-1652
JournalJournal of Materials Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1995
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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