Gas risk in freight container handling

Research output: Contribution to journalOther journal contributionScientific

Abstract

Background: Transport container traffic carries millions of containers worldwide. To protect transported freight and inhibit the spread of foreign species, the containers are fumigated with chemicals, some of which having effect to central nervous system. Gas components and concentrations should be known to define safe handling procedures for each container. The Finnish Work Environment Fund and VTT funded and performed project to collect the needed information, including ventilation times, to support future work to prepare instructions.
Methods: Research contained literature studies and practical measurements for ventilation times.
Results: Based on the literature study, close 80 different volatile compounds were detected, including about 60 chemical substances classified due to their occupational health risk. About 15 of those were known fumigants, others were supposed to be evaporated from the freight. Methods typically used for the measurement of gas concentrations are indication tubes, small hand held detectors and gas analysers. Their reliability and investment cost varies a lot. Ventilation times of containers loaded using separate numbers of corrugated board boxes were tested in field conditions with different loading ratios, temperatures and with different external ventilation systems. Fully loaded containers had even 60 times longer ventilation time than containers loaded partially. Thus, the ventilation of containers can take even several days, depending on the temperature and ventilation procedures.
Conclusions: To prevent occupational risks during container handling, the concentrations of harmful substances in container must be known. Today, such measurements need several analysis methods. Safe handling procedures should be based on reliable data to conclude when the safe working environment with sufficient high security margin is achieved in the container.
Original languageEnglish
Article number584
JournalInjury Prevention
Volume22
Issue numberSupplement 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeB1 Article in a scientific magazine
Event12th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Safety 2016 - Tampere, Finland
Duration: 18 Sep 201621 Sep 2016

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Ventilation
Gases
Temperature
Occupational Health
Central Nervous System
Hand
Costs and Cost Analysis
Research

Cite this

@article{61f5b60d41ee40909bb7712dcb2d7345,
title = "Gas risk in freight container handling",
abstract = "Background: Transport container traffic carries millions of containers worldwide. To protect transported freight and inhibit the spread of foreign species, the containers are fumigated with chemicals, some of which having effect to central nervous system. Gas components and concentrations should be known to define safe handling procedures for each container. The Finnish Work Environment Fund and VTT funded and performed project to collect the needed information, including ventilation times, to support future work to prepare instructions.Methods: Research contained literature studies and practical measurements for ventilation times.Results: Based on the literature study, close 80 different volatile compounds were detected, including about 60 chemical substances classified due to their occupational health risk. About 15 of those were known fumigants, others were supposed to be evaporated from the freight. Methods typically used for the measurement of gas concentrations are indication tubes, small hand held detectors and gas analysers. Their reliability and investment cost varies a lot. Ventilation times of containers loaded using separate numbers of corrugated board boxes were tested in field conditions with different loading ratios, temperatures and with different external ventilation systems. Fully loaded containers had even 60 times longer ventilation time than containers loaded partially. Thus, the ventilation of containers can take even several days, depending on the temperature and ventilation procedures.Conclusions: To prevent occupational risks during container handling, the concentrations of harmful substances in container must be known. Today, such measurements need several analysis methods. Safe handling procedures should be based on reliable data to conclude when the safe working environment with sufficient high security margin is achieved in the container.",
author = "Tuula Kajolinna and Tuula Pellikka and Marja Pitk{\"a}nen",
note = "Conference abstracts published in this journal",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042156.584",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
journal = "Injury Prevention",
issn = "1353-8047",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "Supplement 2",

}

Gas risk in freight container handling. / Kajolinna, Tuula; Pellikka, Tuula; Pitkänen, Marja.

In: Injury Prevention, Vol. 22, No. Supplement 2, 584, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalOther journal contributionScientific

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gas risk in freight container handling

AU - Kajolinna, Tuula

AU - Pellikka, Tuula

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

N1 - Conference abstracts published in this journal

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Y1 - 2016

N2 - Background: Transport container traffic carries millions of containers worldwide. To protect transported freight and inhibit the spread of foreign species, the containers are fumigated with chemicals, some of which having effect to central nervous system. Gas components and concentrations should be known to define safe handling procedures for each container. The Finnish Work Environment Fund and VTT funded and performed project to collect the needed information, including ventilation times, to support future work to prepare instructions.Methods: Research contained literature studies and practical measurements for ventilation times.Results: Based on the literature study, close 80 different volatile compounds were detected, including about 60 chemical substances classified due to their occupational health risk. About 15 of those were known fumigants, others were supposed to be evaporated from the freight. Methods typically used for the measurement of gas concentrations are indication tubes, small hand held detectors and gas analysers. Their reliability and investment cost varies a lot. Ventilation times of containers loaded using separate numbers of corrugated board boxes were tested in field conditions with different loading ratios, temperatures and with different external ventilation systems. Fully loaded containers had even 60 times longer ventilation time than containers loaded partially. Thus, the ventilation of containers can take even several days, depending on the temperature and ventilation procedures.Conclusions: To prevent occupational risks during container handling, the concentrations of harmful substances in container must be known. Today, such measurements need several analysis methods. Safe handling procedures should be based on reliable data to conclude when the safe working environment with sufficient high security margin is achieved in the container.

AB - Background: Transport container traffic carries millions of containers worldwide. To protect transported freight and inhibit the spread of foreign species, the containers are fumigated with chemicals, some of which having effect to central nervous system. Gas components and concentrations should be known to define safe handling procedures for each container. The Finnish Work Environment Fund and VTT funded and performed project to collect the needed information, including ventilation times, to support future work to prepare instructions.Methods: Research contained literature studies and practical measurements for ventilation times.Results: Based on the literature study, close 80 different volatile compounds were detected, including about 60 chemical substances classified due to their occupational health risk. About 15 of those were known fumigants, others were supposed to be evaporated from the freight. Methods typically used for the measurement of gas concentrations are indication tubes, small hand held detectors and gas analysers. Their reliability and investment cost varies a lot. Ventilation times of containers loaded using separate numbers of corrugated board boxes were tested in field conditions with different loading ratios, temperatures and with different external ventilation systems. Fully loaded containers had even 60 times longer ventilation time than containers loaded partially. Thus, the ventilation of containers can take even several days, depending on the temperature and ventilation procedures.Conclusions: To prevent occupational risks during container handling, the concentrations of harmful substances in container must be known. Today, such measurements need several analysis methods. Safe handling procedures should be based on reliable data to conclude when the safe working environment with sufficient high security margin is achieved in the container.

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