Gender differences in thermal comfort and use of thermostats in everyday thermal environments

Sami Karjalainen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    196 Citations (Scopus)


    Differences in thermal comfort between male and female subjects are generally considered to be small. In this study gender differences in thermal comfort and use of thermostats were examined by a quantitative interview survey with a total of 3094 respondents, and by controlled experiments.
    The studies were carried out in Finland and considered everyday thermal environments: homes, offices and a university.
    The results show significant gender differences in thermal comfort, temperature preference, and use of thermostats. Females are less satisfied with room temperatures than males, prefer higher room temperatures than males, and feel both uncomfortably cold and uncomfortably hot more often than males.
    Although females are more critical of their thermal environments, males use thermostats in households more often than females.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1594-1603
    JournalBuilding and Environment
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



    • thermal comfort
    • indoor climate
    • gender
    • thermostat
    • quantitative interview survey

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