Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat

Anneli Ritala, Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey, Tapani Suortti, Alan Schulman, Anna-Maria Nuutila

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

The health benefits of oat (Avena sativa L.) are mainly associated with its mixed-linked beta-glucan. Mixed-linked beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes. It lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oat cultivars through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oat to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. Embryogenic cell cultures were started from mature embryos of oat cultivars ‘Aslak’, ‘Veli’ and ‘Kolbu’. Microscopic- and HPLC-analysis of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases by particle bombardment was performed. The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed beta-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. References Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., K. Katina & K. Autio, 2002. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fiber wheat bread. Cereal Chem. 78: 429-435. Suortti, P. 1993. Size-exclusion chromatographic determination of beta-glucan with postcolumn reaction detection. J. Chrom. 632: 105-110.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress
EditorsJ. Vollmann, H. Grausgruber, P. Ruckenbauer
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
Event17th EUCARPIA General Congress: Genetic Variation for Plant Breeding - Tulln, Austria
Duration: 8 Sep 200411 Sep 2004
Conference number: 17

Conference

Conference17th EUCARPIA General Congress
CountryAustria
CityTulln
Period8/09/0411/09/04

Fingerprint

beta-glucans
genetic engineering
oats
1,3-beta-glucan synthase
cell culture
apical meristems
gene transfer
seeds
cloning (plants)
molecular weight
genes
breeding methods
digestive enzymes
bran
cultivars
Avena sativa
blood serum
plant breeding
embryo (plant)
microstructure

Cite this

Ritala, A., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Oksman-Caldentey, K-M., Suortti, T., Schulman, A., & Nuutila, A-M. (2004). Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat. In J. Vollmann, H. Grausgruber, & P. Ruckenbauer (Eds.), Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress [508]
Ritala, Anneli ; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta ; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja ; Suortti, Tapani ; Schulman, Alan ; Nuutila, Anna-Maria. / Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat. Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress. editor / J. Vollmann ; H. Grausgruber ; P. Ruckenbauer. 2004.
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title = "Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat",
abstract = "The health benefits of oat (Avena sativa L.) are mainly associated with its mixed-linked beta-glucan. Mixed-linked beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes. It lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oat cultivars through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oat to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. Embryogenic cell cultures were started from mature embryos of oat cultivars ‘Aslak’, ‘Veli’ and ‘Kolbu’. Microscopic- and HPLC-analysis of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases by particle bombardment was performed. The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed beta-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. References Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., K. Katina & K. Autio, 2002. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fiber wheat bread. Cereal Chem. 78: 429-435. Suortti, P. 1993. Size-exclusion chromatographic determination of beta-glucan with postcolumn reaction detection. J. Chrom. 632: 105-110.",
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editor = "J. Vollmann and H. Grausgruber and P. Ruckenbauer",
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Ritala, A, Salmenkallio-Marttila, M, Oksman-Caldentey, K-M, Suortti, T, Schulman, A & Nuutila, A-M 2004, Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat. in J Vollmann, H Grausgruber & P Ruckenbauer (eds), Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress., 508, 17th EUCARPIA General Congress, Tulln, Austria, 8/09/04.

Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat. / Ritala, Anneli; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Suortti, Tapani; Schulman, Alan; Nuutila, Anna-Maria.

Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress. ed. / J. Vollmann; H. Grausgruber; P. Ruckenbauer. 2004. 508.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat

AU - Ritala, Anneli

AU - Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta

AU - Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

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AU - Schulman, Alan

AU - Nuutila, Anna-Maria

PY - 2004

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N2 - The health benefits of oat (Avena sativa L.) are mainly associated with its mixed-linked beta-glucan. Mixed-linked beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes. It lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oat cultivars through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oat to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. Embryogenic cell cultures were started from mature embryos of oat cultivars ‘Aslak’, ‘Veli’ and ‘Kolbu’. Microscopic- and HPLC-analysis of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases by particle bombardment was performed. The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed beta-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. References Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., K. Katina & K. Autio, 2002. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fiber wheat bread. Cereal Chem. 78: 429-435. Suortti, P. 1993. Size-exclusion chromatographic determination of beta-glucan with postcolumn reaction detection. J. Chrom. 632: 105-110.

AB - The health benefits of oat (Avena sativa L.) are mainly associated with its mixed-linked beta-glucan. Mixed-linked beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes. It lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oat cultivars through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oat to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. Embryogenic cell cultures were started from mature embryos of oat cultivars ‘Aslak’, ‘Veli’ and ‘Kolbu’. Microscopic- and HPLC-analysis of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases by particle bombardment was performed. The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed beta-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. References Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., K. Katina & K. Autio, 2002. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fiber wheat bread. Cereal Chem. 78: 429-435. Suortti, P. 1993. Size-exclusion chromatographic determination of beta-glucan with postcolumn reaction detection. J. Chrom. 632: 105-110.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

BT - Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress

A2 - Vollmann, J.

A2 - Grausgruber, H.

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ER -

Ritala A, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Oksman-Caldentey K-M, Suortti T, Schulman A, Nuutila A-M. Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oat. In Vollmann J, Grausgruber H, Ruckenbauer P, editors, Proceedings of the  17th EUCARPIA General Congress. 2004. 508