Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats

Anneli Ritala, Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey, Tapani Suortti, Alan Schulman, Anna-Maria Nuutila

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Finland is one of the major oat (Avena sativa L.) producers, holding approximately a 20% share of the worldwide oat trade. The health benefits of oats are mainly associated with its mixed beta-glucan. Mixed beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes and lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oats through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oats to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. The induction of embryogenic cell cultures from mature embryos of oat cultivars Aslak, Veli and Kolbu was performed according to Somers et al. (1992). Calcofluor staining (Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002) and HPLC-analysis (Suortti 1993) of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases (Inoue et al. 1995) was accomplished by using particle bombardment (Bio-Rad, PDS-1000/He) according to Wan & Lemaux (1994). The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed 13-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. Inoue et al. 1995. European Journal of Biochemistry 231: 845-854; Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002. Cereal Chemistry 78: 429-435.; Somers et al. 1992. Bio/Technology 10: 1589-1594; Suortti 1993. Journal of Chromatography 632: 105-110; Wan & Lemaux 1994. Plant Physiology 104: 37-48.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004
EditorsPirjo Peltonen-Sainio, Mari Topi-Hulmi
PublisherNatural Resources Institute Finland
Pages152
Number of pages1
ISBN (Electronic)951-729-880-3
ISBN (Print)951-729-879-X
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

NameAgrifood Research Reports
PublisherMTT Agrifood Research Finland
Number51
ISSN (Print)1458-5073
ISSN (Electronic)1458-5081

Fingerprint

beta-glucans
genetic engineering
oats
1,3-beta-glucan synthase
cell culture
apical meristems
gene transfer
seeds
cloning (plants)
molecular weight
genes
breeding methods
plant physiology
digestive enzymes
Avena sativa
glucans
blood serum
plant breeding
embryo (plant)
biochemistry

Keywords

  • oat
  • beta-glucan
  • beta-glucan synthase
  • transgenic
  • cell culture

Cite this

Ritala, A., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Oksman-Caldentey, K-M., Suortti, T., Schulman, A., & Nuutila, A-M. (2004). Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats. In P. Peltonen-Sainio, & M. Topi-Hulmi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004 (pp. 152). Natural Resources Institute Finland. Agrifood Research Reports, No. 51
Ritala, Anneli ; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta ; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja ; Suortti, Tapani ; Schulman, Alan ; Nuutila, Anna-Maria. / Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats. Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004. editor / Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio ; Mari Topi-Hulmi. Natural Resources Institute Finland, 2004. pp. 152 (Agrifood Research Reports; No. 51).
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Ritala, A, Salmenkallio-Marttila, M, Oksman-Caldentey, K-M, Suortti, T, Schulman, A & Nuutila, A-M 2004, Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats. in P Peltonen-Sainio & M Topi-Hulmi (eds), Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004. Natural Resources Institute Finland, Agrifood Research Reports, no. 51, pp. 152.

Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats. / Ritala, Anneli; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Suortti, Tapani; Schulman, Alan; Nuutila, Anna-Maria.

Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004. ed. / Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Mari Topi-Hulmi. Natural Resources Institute Finland, 2004. p. 152 (Agrifood Research Reports; No. 51).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

TY - CHAP

T1 - Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats

AU - Ritala, Anneli

AU - Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta

AU - Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

AU - Suortti, Tapani

AU - Schulman, Alan

AU - Nuutila, Anna-Maria

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Finland is one of the major oat (Avena sativa L.) producers, holding approximately a 20% share of the worldwide oat trade. The health benefits of oats are mainly associated with its mixed beta-glucan. Mixed beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes and lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oats through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oats to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. The induction of embryogenic cell cultures from mature embryos of oat cultivars Aslak, Veli and Kolbu was performed according to Somers et al. (1992). Calcofluor staining (Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002) and HPLC-analysis (Suortti 1993) of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases (Inoue et al. 1995) was accomplished by using particle bombardment (Bio-Rad, PDS-1000/He) according to Wan & Lemaux (1994). The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed 13-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. Inoue et al. 1995. European Journal of Biochemistry 231: 845-854; Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002. Cereal Chemistry 78: 429-435.; Somers et al. 1992. Bio/Technology 10: 1589-1594; Suortti 1993. Journal of Chromatography 632: 105-110; Wan & Lemaux 1994. Plant Physiology 104: 37-48.

AB - Finland is one of the major oat (Avena sativa L.) producers, holding approximately a 20% share of the worldwide oat trade. The health benefits of oats are mainly associated with its mixed beta-glucan. Mixed beta-glucan is not metabolised by digestive enzymes and lowers the cholesterol levels of blood and balances the glucose and insulin contents of serum after meals. These physiological effects reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim is to increase the beta-glucan content of Finnish oats through genetic engineering. The ultimate aim is to use plant-derived genes to elevate the beta-glucan content of oats to levels not obtainable through traditional plant breeding methods. The induction of embryogenic cell cultures from mature embryos of oat cultivars Aslak, Veli and Kolbu was performed according to Somers et al. (1992). Calcofluor staining (Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002) and HPLC-analysis (Suortti 1993) of beta-glucan of seeds, apical meristems and cell cultures were carried out. Gene transfer of microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthases (Inoue et al. 1995) was accomplished by using particle bombardment (Bio-Rad, PDS-1000/He) according to Wan & Lemaux (1994). The beta-glucan was mainly localized in subaleurone layers of oat seeds by Calcofluor staining. The molecular weight of oat seed 13-glucan was ca. 2 000 000 and the amount varied from 40 to 60 g/kg. In apical meristems trace amounts of beta-glucan were observed. In cell cultures the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was ca. 200 000 and the amount varied from 2 to 3 g/kg. Gene transfer experiments with microbial 1,3-beta-glucan synthase genes have been started in order to evaluate their effect on beta-glucan contents of oat cell lines. The cloning of plant beta-glucan synthase genes is on the way. Inoue et al. 1995. European Journal of Biochemistry 231: 845-854; Salmenkallio-Marttila et al. 2002. Cereal Chemistry 78: 429-435.; Somers et al. 1992. Bio/Technology 10: 1589-1594; Suortti 1993. Journal of Chromatography 632: 105-110; Wan & Lemaux 1994. Plant Physiology 104: 37-48.

KW - oat

KW - beta-glucan

KW - beta-glucan synthase

KW - transgenic

KW - cell culture

M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

SN - 951-729-879-X

T3 - Agrifood Research Reports

SP - 152

BT - Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004

A2 - Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

A2 - Topi-Hulmi, Mari

PB - Natural Resources Institute Finland

ER -

Ritala A, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Oksman-Caldentey K-M, Suortti T, Schulman A, Nuutila A-M. Genetic engineering of beta-glucan contents of oats. In Peltonen-Sainio P, Topi-Hulmi M, editors, Proceedings of the 7th International Oat Conference. Helsinki, Finland, 2004. Natural Resources Institute Finland. 2004. p. 152. (Agrifood Research Reports; No. 51).