Genotoxic effects of various chlorinated butenoic acids identified chlorinated drinking water

Leena Tikkanen (Corresponding Author), Leif Kronberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mutagenic activities of the chlorinated butenoic acids recently identified in chlorinated drinking waters were determined by the Salmonella microsome assay and by the SOS chromotest. The Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97, TA98 and TA100 were used without and with S9 mix. In the SOS chromotest Escherichia coli PQ37 was used as an indicator organism with and without metabolic activation.
In addition, the extremely potent Ames test mutagen (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX, in the open form), was studied by the micronucleus test with mice using intraperitoneal treatment.

The results of the Salmonella assay and the SOS chromotest showed that MX was by far the most potent mutagen of the compounds tested. Mutations were also induced by the reduced form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-hydroxybut-2-enoic acid (red-MX), and by the geometric isomer of MX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (EMX). However, since the solution of EMX contained approximately 5% MX, most of its activity might be attributable to MX. The oxidised form of EMX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-EMX), was marginally active in the SOS chromotest only.
All these compounds were directly acting mutagens and in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) they did not generate mutagenicity. The oxidised form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-MX), was not mutagenic at the dose levels tested. MX did not induce micronuclei in the bone marrow of mice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-116
JournalMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology
Volume240
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Salmonella
Mutagens
Drinking Water
lissamine rhodamine B
Acids
Assays
Chemical activation
Micronucleus Tests
Salmonella typhimurium
Microsomes
Isomers
Escherichia coli
Bone
Bone Marrow
Mutation
2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid
morpholinoanthracycline MX2
Metabolic Activation

Cite this

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title = "Genotoxic effects of various chlorinated butenoic acids identified chlorinated drinking water",
abstract = "The mutagenic activities of the chlorinated butenoic acids recently identified in chlorinated drinking waters were determined by the Salmonella microsome assay and by the SOS chromotest. The Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97, TA98 and TA100 were used without and with S9 mix. In the SOS chromotest Escherichia coli PQ37 was used as an indicator organism with and without metabolic activation. In addition, the extremely potent Ames test mutagen (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX, in the open form), was studied by the micronucleus test with mice using intraperitoneal treatment.The results of the Salmonella assay and the SOS chromotest showed that MX was by far the most potent mutagen of the compounds tested. Mutations were also induced by the reduced form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-hydroxybut-2-enoic acid (red-MX), and by the geometric isomer of MX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (EMX). However, since the solution of EMX contained approximately 5{\%} MX, most of its activity might be attributable to MX. The oxidised form of EMX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-EMX), was marginally active in the SOS chromotest only. All these compounds were directly acting mutagens and in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) they did not generate mutagenicity. The oxidised form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-MX), was not mutagenic at the dose levels tested. MX did not induce micronuclei in the bone marrow of mice.",
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Genotoxic effects of various chlorinated butenoic acids identified chlorinated drinking water. / Tikkanen, Leena (Corresponding Author); Kronberg, Leif.

In: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology, Vol. 240, No. 2, 1990, p. 109-116.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genotoxic effects of various chlorinated butenoic acids identified chlorinated drinking water

AU - Tikkanen, Leena

AU - Kronberg, Leif

PY - 1990

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N2 - The mutagenic activities of the chlorinated butenoic acids recently identified in chlorinated drinking waters were determined by the Salmonella microsome assay and by the SOS chromotest. The Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97, TA98 and TA100 were used without and with S9 mix. In the SOS chromotest Escherichia coli PQ37 was used as an indicator organism with and without metabolic activation. In addition, the extremely potent Ames test mutagen (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX, in the open form), was studied by the micronucleus test with mice using intraperitoneal treatment.The results of the Salmonella assay and the SOS chromotest showed that MX was by far the most potent mutagen of the compounds tested. Mutations were also induced by the reduced form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-hydroxybut-2-enoic acid (red-MX), and by the geometric isomer of MX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (EMX). However, since the solution of EMX contained approximately 5% MX, most of its activity might be attributable to MX. The oxidised form of EMX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-EMX), was marginally active in the SOS chromotest only. All these compounds were directly acting mutagens and in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) they did not generate mutagenicity. The oxidised form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-MX), was not mutagenic at the dose levels tested. MX did not induce micronuclei in the bone marrow of mice.

AB - The mutagenic activities of the chlorinated butenoic acids recently identified in chlorinated drinking waters were determined by the Salmonella microsome assay and by the SOS chromotest. The Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97, TA98 and TA100 were used without and with S9 mix. In the SOS chromotest Escherichia coli PQ37 was used as an indicator organism with and without metabolic activation. In addition, the extremely potent Ames test mutagen (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX, in the open form), was studied by the micronucleus test with mice using intraperitoneal treatment.The results of the Salmonella assay and the SOS chromotest showed that MX was by far the most potent mutagen of the compounds tested. Mutations were also induced by the reduced form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-hydroxybut-2-enoic acid (red-MX), and by the geometric isomer of MX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (EMX). However, since the solution of EMX contained approximately 5% MX, most of its activity might be attributable to MX. The oxidised form of EMX, (E)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-EMX), was marginally active in the SOS chromotest only. All these compounds were directly acting mutagens and in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) they did not generate mutagenicity. The oxidised form of MX, (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-butenedioic acid (ox-MX), was not mutagenic at the dose levels tested. MX did not induce micronuclei in the bone marrow of mice.

U2 - 10.1016/0165-1218(90)90014-S

DO - 10.1016/0165-1218(90)90014-S

M3 - Article

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JO - Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology

JF - Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology

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IS - 2

ER -