Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site: Version 2.0

Mari Lahti, Jon Engström, Jussi Mattila, Markku Paananen, Seppo Paulamäki, Seppo Gehör, Aulis Kärki, Turo Ahokas, Taija Torvela, Kai Front, Ismo Aaltonen (Editor)

Research output: Book/ReportReport


The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. In addition, the largest ductile deformation zones and tectonic units are described in 3D model. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300°C to less than 100°C. Two types of alteration can be observed: firstly, pervasive alteration and secondly fracturecontrolled alteration. Clay mineralisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the foliation and lithological trend. Kaolinite is also mainly located in the uppermost part, but is not controlled by lithological trend. Another member of the clay system, illitisation, consists of few distinct volumes, which are located deeper, and are spatially associated with site-scale thrust faults. The fault zones at Olkiluoto are mainly SE-dipping thrust faults formed during contraction in the last stages of the Fennian orogeny, approximately at 1800 Ma ago and were reactivated in several deformation phases, as indicated by fault-slip data and K-Ar age determinations. In addition, NE-SW striking strike-slip faults are also common. Fault zone intersections from drillholes, the ONKALO access tunnel and outcrops have been correlated by the application of slickensides orientations, mise-à-lamassemeasurements, eletctromagnetic soundings, 3D seismics and VSP-reflectors, resulting the model of 179 brittle fault zones.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages580
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesPosiva Working Report


  • lithology
  • deformation
  • hydrothermal alteration
  • geological model
  • 3D modelling
  • spent nuclear fuel disposal
  • Olkiluoto
  • Eurajaoki
  • Finland


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