Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s

Matti Leppäranta, Lasse Makkonen, L. Palosuo, E. Kuusisto

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    In winter in Finland the land is covered by snow, fresh water bodies as well as the neighbouring areas of the Baltic Sea are covered by ice, and the ground is frozen. Snow and ice research is thus a natural field of geophysics in this country. The main topics have been the seasonal snow cover and sea ice. The research began well in the 1800s for practical monitoring purposes and for the sake of general interest in natural sciences. Until 1940 the activity was focused on the establishment and development of snow and ice monitoring systems. In 1950-1970 basic research questions began to arise as well as contacts to polar research formed. A major increase in the volume of research took place in the 1970s due to the expansion of the winter shipping in Finland and due to the general increase in human activity at high latitudes. During the last decade climate and environmental questions have become increasingly important which has created a wider activity in snow and ice research. Also a new generation with many new doctoral theses has come into the field which gives good promises for the future of snow and ice research in Finland.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)261-285
    Number of pages25
    Issue number1-2
    Publication statusPublished - 2001
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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