Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s

Matti Leppäranta, Lasse Makkonen, L. Palosuo, E. Kuusisto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In winter in Finland the land is covered by snow, fresh water bodies as well as the neighbouring areas of the Baltic Sea are covered by ice, and the ground is frozen. Snow and ice research is thus a natural field of geophysics in this country. The main topics have been the seasonal snow cover and sea ice. The research began well in the 1800s for practical monitoring purposes and for the sake of general interest in natural sciences. Until 1940 the activity was focused on the establishment and development of snow and ice monitoring systems. In 1950-1970 basic research questions began to arise as well as contacts to polar research formed. A major increase in the volume of research took place in the 1970s due to the expansion of the winter shipping in Finland and due to the general increase in human activity at high latitudes. During the last decade climate and environmental questions have become increasingly important which has created a wider activity in snow and ice research. Also a new generation with many new doctoral theses has come into the field which gives good promises for the future of snow and ice research in Finland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-285
Number of pages25
JournalGeophysica
Volume37
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2001
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Finland
geophysics
snow
ice
winter
Baltic sea
snow cover
fresh water
sea ice
theses
frozen ground
polar regions
climate
shipping
monitoring system
human activity
expansion
monitoring

Cite this

Leppäranta, M., Makkonen, L., Palosuo, L., & Kuusisto, E. (2001). Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s. Geophysica, 37(1-2), 261-285.
Leppäranta, Matti ; Makkonen, Lasse ; Palosuo, L. ; Kuusisto, E. / Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s. In: Geophysica. 2001 ; Vol. 37, No. 1-2. pp. 261-285.
@article{923381cfc55b4cb5909348de2337378b,
title = "Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s",
abstract = "In winter in Finland the land is covered by snow, fresh water bodies as well as the neighbouring areas of the Baltic Sea are covered by ice, and the ground is frozen. Snow and ice research is thus a natural field of geophysics in this country. The main topics have been the seasonal snow cover and sea ice. The research began well in the 1800s for practical monitoring purposes and for the sake of general interest in natural sciences. Until 1940 the activity was focused on the establishment and development of snow and ice monitoring systems. In 1950-1970 basic research questions began to arise as well as contacts to polar research formed. A major increase in the volume of research took place in the 1970s due to the expansion of the winter shipping in Finland and due to the general increase in human activity at high latitudes. During the last decade climate and environmental questions have become increasingly important which has created a wider activity in snow and ice research. Also a new generation with many new doctoral theses has come into the field which gives good promises for the future of snow and ice research in Finland.",
author = "Matti Lepp{\"a}ranta and Lasse Makkonen and L. Palosuo and E. Kuusisto",
year = "2001",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "261--285",
journal = "Geophysica",
issn = "0367-4231",
publisher = "Finish Environment Institute",
number = "1-2",

}

Leppäranta, M, Makkonen, L, Palosuo, L & Kuusisto, E 2001, 'Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s', Geophysica, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 261-285.

Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s. / Leppäranta, Matti; Makkonen, Lasse; Palosuo, L.; Kuusisto, E.

In: Geophysica, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, 2001, p. 261-285.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s

AU - Leppäranta, Matti

AU - Makkonen, Lasse

AU - Palosuo, L.

AU - Kuusisto, E.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - In winter in Finland the land is covered by snow, fresh water bodies as well as the neighbouring areas of the Baltic Sea are covered by ice, and the ground is frozen. Snow and ice research is thus a natural field of geophysics in this country. The main topics have been the seasonal snow cover and sea ice. The research began well in the 1800s for practical monitoring purposes and for the sake of general interest in natural sciences. Until 1940 the activity was focused on the establishment and development of snow and ice monitoring systems. In 1950-1970 basic research questions began to arise as well as contacts to polar research formed. A major increase in the volume of research took place in the 1970s due to the expansion of the winter shipping in Finland and due to the general increase in human activity at high latitudes. During the last decade climate and environmental questions have become increasingly important which has created a wider activity in snow and ice research. Also a new generation with many new doctoral theses has come into the field which gives good promises for the future of snow and ice research in Finland.

AB - In winter in Finland the land is covered by snow, fresh water bodies as well as the neighbouring areas of the Baltic Sea are covered by ice, and the ground is frozen. Snow and ice research is thus a natural field of geophysics in this country. The main topics have been the seasonal snow cover and sea ice. The research began well in the 1800s for practical monitoring purposes and for the sake of general interest in natural sciences. Until 1940 the activity was focused on the establishment and development of snow and ice monitoring systems. In 1950-1970 basic research questions began to arise as well as contacts to polar research formed. A major increase in the volume of research took place in the 1970s due to the expansion of the winter shipping in Finland and due to the general increase in human activity at high latitudes. During the last decade climate and environmental questions have become increasingly important which has created a wider activity in snow and ice research. Also a new generation with many new doctoral theses has come into the field which gives good promises for the future of snow and ice research in Finland.

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 261

EP - 285

JO - Geophysica

JF - Geophysica

SN - 0367-4231

IS - 1-2

ER -

Leppäranta M, Makkonen L, Palosuo L, Kuusisto E. Geophysics of snow and ice in Finland during the 1900s. Geophysica. 2001;37(1-2):261-285.