Gravure-Printed Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells: Toward Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing

Young Yun Kim, Tae Youl Yang, Riikka Suhonen, Marja Välimäki, Tiina Maaninen, Antti Kemppainen, Nam Joong Jeon, Jangwon Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

121 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have resulted in greater than 23% efficiency with superior advantages such as flexibility and solution-processability, allowing PSCs to be fabricated by a high-throughput and low-cost roll-to-roll (R2R) process. The development of scalable deposition processes is crucial to realize R2R production of flexible PSCs. Gravure printing is a promising candidate with the benefit of direct printing of the desired layer with arbitrary shape and size by using the R2R process. Here, flexible PSCs are fabricated by gravure printing. Printing inks and processing parameters are optimized to obtain smooth and uniform films. SnO2 nanoparticles are uniformly printed by reducing surface tension. Perovskite layers are successfully formed by optimizing the printing parameters and subsequent antisolvent bathing. 2,2′,7,7′-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene is also successfully printed. The all-gravure-printed device exhibits 17.2% champion efficiency, with 15.5% maximum power point tracking efficiency for 1000 s. Gravure-printed flexible PSCs based on a two-step deposition of perovskite layer are also demonstrated. Furthermore, a R2R process based on the gravure printing is demonstrated. The champion efficiency of 9.7% is achieved for partly R2R-processed PSCs based on a two-step fabrication of the perovskite layer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1802094
Pages (from-to)1802094
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Y.Y.K. and T.-Y.Y. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by a grant from the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Republic of Korea (SKO1806M06 as “GO! KRICT project”), and by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) of Korea (NRF-2016M3A6A7945503). This work is also supported by a grant from the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20183010014470). The flower-patterned printing plate was designed in the European Commission under the 7th framework project ArtESun under Grant Agreement No. FP7-NMP-2013-SMALL-7/604397.


  • flexible perovskite solar cells
  • gravure printing
  • perovskite solar cells
  • roll-to-roll process


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