Gravure-printed ZnO in fully roll-to-roll printed inverted organic solar cells: Optimization of adhesion and performance

Marja Vilkman (Corresponding Author), Pälvi Apilo, Marja Välimäki, Mari Ylikunnari, Anderea Bernardi, Riccardo Po, Gianni Corso, Jukka Hast

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


We present a gravure printing process for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle ink to be used as a hole-blocking layer in inverted organic solar cells, enabling the production of patterned devices with freedom of design. The printability of the ink is optimized in a pilot-scale roll-to-roll (R2R) process, leading to smooth layers having a thickness of few tens of nanometers. The properties of the printed ZnO film are further optimized using R2R post-printing plasma treatment, which leads to increased adhesion and power conversion efficiency (PCE). The functionality of the printed ZnO layer is demonstrated in fully R2R-printed inverted solar cells showing high performance (2.9?% mean PCE).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-413
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • zinc oxide
  • nanoparticles
  • roll-to-roll processing
  • gravue printing
  • polymer solar cells

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