Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland

Dealing with the uncertainties

Sampo Soimakallio (Corresponding Author), Tuula Mäkinen, Tommi Ekholm, K. Pahkala, H. Mikkola, Teuvo Paappanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-90
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Policy
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Heat generation
Biofuels
Greenhouse gases
biofuel
electricity
greenhouse gas
Electricity
Gas emissions
fossil fuel
Fossil fuels
heat production
Raw materials
energy
barley
Forestry
Biodiesel
Uncertainty
ethanol
forestry
grass

Keywords

  • Emission reduction
  • Greenhouse gases (GHG)
  • Liquid biofuels

Cite this

Soimakallio, Sampo ; Mäkinen, Tuula ; Ekholm, Tommi ; Pahkala, K. ; Mikkola, H. ; Paappanen, Teuvo. / Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland : Dealing with the uncertainties. In: Energy Policy. 2009 ; Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 80-90.
@article{ea0610b6106b40e9b172cfd253a1035b,
title = "Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland: Dealing with the uncertainties",
abstract = "One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.",
keywords = "Emission reduction, Greenhouse gases (GHG), Liquid biofuels",
author = "Sampo Soimakallio and Tuula M{\"a}kinen and Tommi Ekholm and K. Pahkala and H. Mikkola and Teuvo Paappanen",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1016/j.enpol.2008.08.003",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "80--90",
journal = "Energy Policy",
issn = "0301-4215",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1",

}

Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland : Dealing with the uncertainties. / Soimakallio, Sampo (Corresponding Author); Mäkinen, Tuula; Ekholm, Tommi; Pahkala, K.; Mikkola, H.; Paappanen, Teuvo.

In: Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2009, p. 80-90.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland

T2 - Dealing with the uncertainties

AU - Soimakallio, Sampo

AU - Mäkinen, Tuula

AU - Ekholm, Tommi

AU - Pahkala, K.

AU - Mikkola, H.

AU - Paappanen, Teuvo

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.

AB - One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.

KW - Emission reduction

KW - Greenhouse gases (GHG)

KW - Liquid biofuels

U2 - 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.08.003

DO - 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.08.003

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 80

EP - 90

JO - Energy Policy

JF - Energy Policy

SN - 0301-4215

IS - 1

ER -