Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland: Dealing with the uncertainties

Sampo Soimakallio (Corresponding Author), Tuula Mäkinen, Tommi Ekholm, K. Pahkala, H. Mikkola, Teuvo Paappanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    55 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)80-90
    Number of pages11
    JournalEnergy Policy
    Volume37
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Heat generation
    Biofuels
    Greenhouse gases
    biofuel
    electricity
    greenhouse gas
    Electricity
    Gas emissions
    fossil fuel
    Fossil fuels
    heat production
    Raw materials
    energy
    barley
    Forestry
    Biodiesel
    Uncertainty
    ethanol
    forestry
    grass

    Keywords

    • Emission reduction
    • Greenhouse gases (GHG)
    • Liquid biofuels

    Cite this

    Soimakallio, Sampo ; Mäkinen, Tuula ; Ekholm, Tommi ; Pahkala, K. ; Mikkola, H. ; Paappanen, Teuvo. / Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland : Dealing with the uncertainties. In: Energy Policy. 2009 ; Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 80-90.
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    abstract = "One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.",
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    author = "Sampo Soimakallio and Tuula M{\"a}kinen and Tommi Ekholm and K. Pahkala and H. Mikkola and Teuvo Paappanen",
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    Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland : Dealing with the uncertainties. / Soimakallio, Sampo (Corresponding Author); Mäkinen, Tuula; Ekholm, Tommi; Pahkala, K.; Mikkola, H.; Paappanen, Teuvo.

    In: Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2009, p. 80-90.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland

    T2 - Dealing with the uncertainties

    AU - Soimakallio, Sampo

    AU - Mäkinen, Tuula

    AU - Ekholm, Tommi

    AU - Pahkala, K.

    AU - Mikkola, H.

    AU - Paappanen, Teuvo

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.

    AB - One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3–5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N2O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced.

    KW - Emission reduction

    KW - Greenhouse gases (GHG)

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