Growth rates of icicles

Norikazu Maeno, Lasse Makkonen, Kouichi Nishimura, K Kosugi, Tsuneya Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.

Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-326
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Glaciology
Volume40
Issue number135
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1994
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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freezing
water supply
wind velocity
turbulent boundary layer
formation mechanism
theoretical study
water
heat transfer
relative humidity
experimental study
temperature
crystal
rate

Cite this

Maeno, N., Makkonen, L., Nishimura, K., Kosugi, K., & Takahashi, T. (1994). Growth rates of icicles. Journal of Glaciology, 40(135), 319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401
Maeno, Norikazu ; Makkonen, Lasse ; Nishimura, Kouichi ; Kosugi, K ; Takahashi, Tsuneya. / Growth rates of icicles. In: Journal of Glaciology. 1994 ; Vol. 40, No. 135. pp. 319-326.
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abstract = "Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.",
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Maeno, N, Makkonen, L, Nishimura, K, Kosugi, K & Takahashi, T 1994, 'Growth rates of icicles', Journal of Glaciology, vol. 40, no. 135, pp. 319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401

Growth rates of icicles. / Maeno, Norikazu; Makkonen, Lasse; Nishimura, Kouichi; Kosugi, K; Takahashi, Tsuneya.

In: Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 40, No. 135, 1994, p. 319-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Growth rates of icicles

AU - Maeno, Norikazu

AU - Makkonen, Lasse

AU - Nishimura, Kouichi

AU - Kosugi, K

AU - Takahashi, Tsuneya

N1 - Project code: RAT8029

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.

AB - Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.

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Maeno N, Makkonen L, Nishimura K, Kosugi K, Takahashi T. Growth rates of icicles. Journal of Glaciology. 1994;40(135):319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401