Growth rates of icicles

Norikazu Maeno, Lasse Makkonen, Kouichi Nishimura, K Kosugi, Tsuneya Takahashi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    38 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.

    Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)319-326
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Glaciology
    Volume40
    Issue number135
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1994
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    freezing
    water supply
    wind velocity
    turbulent boundary layer
    formation mechanism
    theoretical study
    water
    heat transfer
    relative humidity
    experimental study
    temperature
    crystal
    rate

    Cite this

    Maeno, N., Makkonen, L., Nishimura, K., Kosugi, K., & Takahashi, T. (1994). Growth rates of icicles. Journal of Glaciology, 40(135), 319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401
    Maeno, Norikazu ; Makkonen, Lasse ; Nishimura, Kouichi ; Kosugi, K ; Takahashi, Tsuneya. / Growth rates of icicles. In: Journal of Glaciology. 1994 ; Vol. 40, No. 135. pp. 319-326.
    @article{3198d741a8594b5182e1414fb4857436,
    title = "Growth rates of icicles",
    abstract = "Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.",
    author = "Norikazu Maeno and Lasse Makkonen and Kouichi Nishimura and K Kosugi and Tsuneya Takahashi",
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    Maeno, N, Makkonen, L, Nishimura, K, Kosugi, K & Takahashi, T 1994, 'Growth rates of icicles', Journal of Glaciology, vol. 40, no. 135, pp. 319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401

    Growth rates of icicles. / Maeno, Norikazu; Makkonen, Lasse; Nishimura, Kouichi; Kosugi, K; Takahashi, Tsuneya.

    In: Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 40, No. 135, 1994, p. 319-326.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Growth rates of icicles

    AU - Maeno, Norikazu

    AU - Makkonen, Lasse

    AU - Nishimura, Kouichi

    AU - Kosugi, K

    AU - Takahashi, Tsuneya

    N1 - Project code: RAT8029

    PY - 1994

    Y1 - 1994

    N2 - Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.

    AB - Experimental and theoretical studies on the growth rate of an icicle were carried out as a function of temperature, water-supply rate and wind speed; the relative humidity was also taken into account. The length of an icicle increases by the downward growth of thin dendritic crystals into the supercooled pendant water drop at the tip, and thus the growth is in the crystallographic a-axis direction. The diameter, on the other hand, increases by the freezing of a water film flowing down along the icicle wall. The ratio of measured length-and diameter-growth rates was large, namely 8–32.Both growth rates increased with decreasing temperature and increasing wind speed. The increase in water-supply rate led to the decrease in the length-growth rate but no significant change in the diameter-growth rate. These results could be well described by a numerical model of icicle growth which takes account of the dendritic growth at the tip and the wall and the effective heat transfer within the turbulent boundary layer around the icicle. A formation mechanism of ribs and hollows is discussed in relation to the flowing and freezing process of water on an icicle wall.

    U2 - 10.3189/S0022143000007401

    DO - 10.3189/S0022143000007401

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 319

    EP - 326

    JO - Journal of Glaciology

    JF - Journal of Glaciology

    SN - 0022-1430

    IS - 135

    ER -

    Maeno N, Makkonen L, Nishimura K, Kosugi K, Takahashi T. Growth rates of icicles. Journal of Glaciology. 1994;40(135):319-326. https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000007401