Guidelines for transportation, handling, and use of fast pyrolysis bio-oil: 1. Flammability and toxicity

Anja Oasmaa, Anssi Källi, Christian Lindfors, Douglas C. Elliott, Dave Springer, Cordner Peacocke, David Chiaramonti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or "bio-oil", is coming into the market in Europe. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for further specifications and supporting documentation. The properties of bio-oil are different from conventional liquid fuels and, therefore, may need to overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. Multiple material safety data sheets (MSDSs) are currently being used by different producers, but there is a desire to update these as more information becomes available. In order to standardize bio-oil, quality specifications are being adopted. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM D7544 was approved in 2010. CEN standardization has been initiated in Europe. In the EU, a new chemical regulation system REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) exists. Registration under REACH has to be perfomed if bio-oil is produced or imported into the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under the TSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act) and DSL (Domestic Substance List), respectively. In this paper, the state of the art on standardization is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3864-3873
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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