A full f nonlinear 5D gyrokinetic electrostatic particle‐in‐cell code ELMFIRE using an implicit direct solution method for ion polarization drift and electron parallel velocity response to electric field and its validation are described. The developed code is applied for transport analysis in a tokamak plasma at steep pressure gradient. The role of turbulence and neoclassical equilibrium in determining the flux surface averaged radial electric field component are investigated, as well as the role of the latter in affecting the saturation level of the turbulence.
Heikkinen, J., Henriksson, S., Janhunen, S., Kiviniemi, T. P., & Ogando, F. (2006). Gyrokinetic Simulation of Particle and Heat Transport in the Presence of Wide Orbits and Strong Profile Variations in the Edge Plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 46(7-9), 490-495. https://doi.org/10.1002/ctpp.200610035