Foodborne disease is one of the most widespread problems of the contemporary world. Numerous microbiological hazards and risks are associated with different areas of the food industry. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept is a systematic approach to ensuring food safety. The implementation of an HACCP system is closely connected with microbiological quality control. Rapid microbiological methods are being extensively developed. The methods are based on several different principles of direct or indirect detection of microbes. In the HACCP system, these methods can be used when the system is developed, implemented and maintained. Successful combination of the HACCP programme and rapid microbiological methods may help the industry to find new ways of obtaining reliable results more efficiently and of ensuring food safety.