The protective concrete walls of nuclear power plants must withstand accidental or intentional missile impact, and structural systems and solutions are being developed in building frameworks and detailed levels requiring sophisticated tools for different design phases such as detailing shear reinforcement. Numerical methods, for example, have been developed and used for predicting prestressed shear reinforced concrete structures response subjected to hard projectile impact. The structural behavior of prestressed impact-loaded walls is predicted analytically and by using nonlinear FE models. Analysis predicts damage mechanisms such as crater formation, penetration, shear cone formation, and perforation. To produce experimental data required to verify the accuracy of numerical models, an experimental setup has been developed at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) for intermediate-scale impact testing enabling force-plate testing with soft missiles and concrete slab impact testing.
Tuomala, M., Calonius, K., Saarenheimo, A., & Välikangas, P. (2010). Hard missile impact on prestressed shear reinforced slab. Journal of Disaster Research, 5(4), 437-451. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2010.p0437