Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose

Jari Vartiainen (Corresponding Author), Tiina Pöhler, Kristiina Sirola, Lea Pylkkänen, Harri Alenius, Jouni Hokkinen, Unto Tapper, Panu Lahtinen, Anu Kapanen, Kaisa Putkisto, Panu Hiekkataipale, Paula Eronen, Janne Ruokolainen, Antti Laukkanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

151 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. MFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we evaluated the worker exposures to particles in air during grinding and spray drying of birch cellulose. Processing of MFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. To assess the health effects of the produced MFC, mouse macrophages and human monocyte derived macrophages were exposed to MFC and the viability and cytokine profile of the cells were studied thereafter. No evidence of inflammatory effects or cytotoxicity on mouse and human macrophages was observed after 6 and 24 h exposure to the materials studied. The results of toxicity studies suggest that the friction ground MFC is not cytotoxic and does not cause any effects on inflammatory system in macrophages. In addition, environmental safety of MFC was studied with ecotoxicity test. Acute environmental toxicity assessed with kinetic luminescent bacteria test showed high NOEC values (>100 mg/l) for studied MFC. However, MFC disturbed Daphnia magna mobility mechanically when the test was performed according to the standard procedure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775-786
Number of pages12
JournalCellulose
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Spray drying
Cellulose
Health
Friction
Macrophages
Toxicity
Grinding mills
Fumes
Cytotoxicity
Ducts
Bacteria
Compaction
Innovation
Cytokines

Keywords

  • Microfibrillated cellulose
  • nanocellulose
  • safety
  • immunotoxicity
  • ecotoxicity

Cite this

Vartiainen, Jari ; Pöhler, Tiina ; Sirola, Kristiina ; Pylkkänen, Lea ; Alenius, Harri ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Tapper, Unto ; Lahtinen, Panu ; Kapanen, Anu ; Putkisto, Kaisa ; Hiekkataipale, Panu ; Eronen, Paula ; Ruokolainen, Janne ; Laukkanen, Antti. / Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose. In: Cellulose. 2011 ; Vol. 18, No. 3. pp. 775-786.
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abstract = "Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. MFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we evaluated the worker exposures to particles in air during grinding and spray drying of birch cellulose. Processing of MFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. To assess the health effects of the produced MFC, mouse macrophages and human monocyte derived macrophages were exposed to MFC and the viability and cytokine profile of the cells were studied thereafter. No evidence of inflammatory effects or cytotoxicity on mouse and human macrophages was observed after 6 and 24 h exposure to the materials studied. The results of toxicity studies suggest that the friction ground MFC is not cytotoxic and does not cause any effects on inflammatory system in macrophages. In addition, environmental safety of MFC was studied with ecotoxicity test. Acute environmental toxicity assessed with kinetic luminescent bacteria test showed high NOEC values (>100 mg/l) for studied MFC. However, MFC disturbed Daphnia magna mobility mechanically when the test was performed according to the standard procedure.",
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Vartiainen, J, Pöhler, T, Sirola, K, Pylkkänen, L, Alenius, H, Hokkinen, J, Tapper, U, Lahtinen, P, Kapanen, A, Putkisto, K, Hiekkataipale, P, Eronen, P, Ruokolainen, J & Laukkanen, A 2011, 'Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose', Cellulose, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 775-786. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-011-9501-7

Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose. / Vartiainen, Jari (Corresponding Author); Pöhler, Tiina; Sirola, Kristiina; Pylkkänen, Lea; Alenius, Harri; Hokkinen, Jouni; Tapper, Unto; Lahtinen, Panu; Kapanen, Anu; Putkisto, Kaisa; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Eronen, Paula; Ruokolainen, Janne; Laukkanen, Antti.

In: Cellulose, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2011, p. 775-786.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Health and environmental safety aspects of friction grinding and spray drying of microfibrillated cellulose

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Pöhler, Tiina

AU - Sirola, Kristiina

AU - Pylkkänen, Lea

AU - Alenius, Harri

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Tapper, Unto

AU - Lahtinen, Panu

AU - Kapanen, Anu

AU - Putkisto, Kaisa

AU - Hiekkataipale, Panu

AU - Eronen, Paula

AU - Ruokolainen, Janne

AU - Laukkanen, Antti

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. MFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we evaluated the worker exposures to particles in air during grinding and spray drying of birch cellulose. Processing of MFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. To assess the health effects of the produced MFC, mouse macrophages and human monocyte derived macrophages were exposed to MFC and the viability and cytokine profile of the cells were studied thereafter. No evidence of inflammatory effects or cytotoxicity on mouse and human macrophages was observed after 6 and 24 h exposure to the materials studied. The results of toxicity studies suggest that the friction ground MFC is not cytotoxic and does not cause any effects on inflammatory system in macrophages. In addition, environmental safety of MFC was studied with ecotoxicity test. Acute environmental toxicity assessed with kinetic luminescent bacteria test showed high NOEC values (>100 mg/l) for studied MFC. However, MFC disturbed Daphnia magna mobility mechanically when the test was performed according to the standard procedure.

AB - Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most promising innovations for forest sector. MFC is produced by fibrillating the fibres under high compression and shear forces. In this study we evaluated the worker exposures to particles in air during grinding and spray drying of birch cellulose. Processing of MFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. To assess the health effects of the produced MFC, mouse macrophages and human monocyte derived macrophages were exposed to MFC and the viability and cytokine profile of the cells were studied thereafter. No evidence of inflammatory effects or cytotoxicity on mouse and human macrophages was observed after 6 and 24 h exposure to the materials studied. The results of toxicity studies suggest that the friction ground MFC is not cytotoxic and does not cause any effects on inflammatory system in macrophages. In addition, environmental safety of MFC was studied with ecotoxicity test. Acute environmental toxicity assessed with kinetic luminescent bacteria test showed high NOEC values (>100 mg/l) for studied MFC. However, MFC disturbed Daphnia magna mobility mechanically when the test was performed according to the standard procedure.

KW - Microfibrillated cellulose

KW - nanocellulose

KW - safety

KW - immunotoxicity

KW - ecotoxicity

U2 - 10.1007/s10570-011-9501-7

DO - 10.1007/s10570-011-9501-7

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 775

EP - 786

JO - Cellulose

JF - Cellulose

SN - 0969-0239

IS - 3

ER -