Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose

Marja Pitkänen, Jari Vartiainen, Anu Kapanen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Nanomaterials will improve the performance of many products in future but at the same time they exhibit novel properties and may expose humans and environment to new risks. One of the most abundant, sustainable and promising nanomaterial for forest sector is nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC is produced by grinding the cellulose fibres under high compression and shear forces. NFC forms an opaque and stable, well-dispersed, aqueous suspension consisting of long and curly fibrils with a high aspect ratio. Wood pulp and powdered celluloses are generally recognized as safe and can be used for example as a raw material for food contact materials or even as food additives. However, as with other nanomaterials, the biological effects of nanocelluloses cannot be predicted solely from the chemical nature of cellulose. The size, shape, aggregation properties, degree of branching and specific surface properties, among others, still poorly understood factors, may affect the interactions of cellulose nanofibers with cells and living organisms. In this study we evaluated the health, environmental and occupational safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. Processing of NFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. The toxicological tests with several human and mouse cell cultures did not indicate any cyto- or genotoxic properties. Studied NFC samples were not acutely ecotoxic in kinetic luminescent bacteria test (Vibrio fischeri) with studied concentration up to 0.5 % NCF.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNovel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond
Subtitle of host publicationInternational Workshop: Book of Abstracts
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages14-14
Number of pages1
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7605-0
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7604-3
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventNovel nanostructured polymeric materials for foodpackaging and beyond: International Workshop - Espoo, Finland
Duration: 15 Sep 201116 Sep 2011

Publication series

NameVTT Symposium
PublisherVTT
Number270
ISSN (Print)0357–9387
ISSN (Electronic)1455–0873

Workshop

WorkshopNovel nanostructured polymeric materials for foodpackaging and beyond
CountryFinland
CityEspoo
Period15/09/1116/09/11

Fingerprint

cellulose
nanomaterials
grinding
dryers
nanofibers
Vibrio fischeri
wood pulp
grinders
occupational health and safety
cellulosic fibers
valves (equipment)
food additives
friction
shear stress
raw materials
branching
cell culture
testing
kinetics
bacteria

Cite this

Pitkänen, M., Vartiainen, J., & Kapanen, A. (2011). Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. In Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond: International Workshop: Book of Abstracts (pp. 14-14). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Symposium, No. 270
Pitkänen, Marja ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Kapanen, Anu. / Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond: International Workshop: Book of Abstracts. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. pp. 14-14 (VTT Symposium; No. 270).
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Pitkänen, M, Vartiainen, J & Kapanen, A 2011, Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. in Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond: International Workshop: Book of Abstracts. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Symposium, no. 270, pp. 14-14, Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for foodpackaging and beyond, Espoo, Finland, 15/09/11.

Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. / Pitkänen, Marja; Vartiainen, Jari; Kapanen, Anu.

Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond: International Workshop: Book of Abstracts. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. p. 14-14 (VTT Symposium; No. 270).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

TY - CHAP

T1 - Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Kapanen, Anu

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Nanomaterials will improve the performance of many products in future but at the same time they exhibit novel properties and may expose humans and environment to new risks. One of the most abundant, sustainable and promising nanomaterial for forest sector is nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC is produced by grinding the cellulose fibres under high compression and shear forces. NFC forms an opaque and stable, well-dispersed, aqueous suspension consisting of long and curly fibrils with a high aspect ratio. Wood pulp and powdered celluloses are generally recognized as safe and can be used for example as a raw material for food contact materials or even as food additives. However, as with other nanomaterials, the biological effects of nanocelluloses cannot be predicted solely from the chemical nature of cellulose. The size, shape, aggregation properties, degree of branching and specific surface properties, among others, still poorly understood factors, may affect the interactions of cellulose nanofibers with cells and living organisms. In this study we evaluated the health, environmental and occupational safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. Processing of NFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. The toxicological tests with several human and mouse cell cultures did not indicate any cyto- or genotoxic properties. Studied NFC samples were not acutely ecotoxic in kinetic luminescent bacteria test (Vibrio fischeri) with studied concentration up to 0.5 % NCF.

AB - Nanomaterials will improve the performance of many products in future but at the same time they exhibit novel properties and may expose humans and environment to new risks. One of the most abundant, sustainable and promising nanomaterial for forest sector is nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC is produced by grinding the cellulose fibres under high compression and shear forces. NFC forms an opaque and stable, well-dispersed, aqueous suspension consisting of long and curly fibrils with a high aspect ratio. Wood pulp and powdered celluloses are generally recognized as safe and can be used for example as a raw material for food contact materials or even as food additives. However, as with other nanomaterials, the biological effects of nanocelluloses cannot be predicted solely from the chemical nature of cellulose. The size, shape, aggregation properties, degree of branching and specific surface properties, among others, still poorly understood factors, may affect the interactions of cellulose nanofibers with cells and living organisms. In this study we evaluated the health, environmental and occupational safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. Processing of NFC with either a friction grinder or a spray dryer did not cause significant exposure to particles during normal operation. Grinding generated small amount of particles, which were mostly removed by fume hood. Spray dryer leaked particles when duct valve was closed, but when correctly operated the exposure to particles was low or nonexistent. The toxicological tests with several human and mouse cell cultures did not indicate any cyto- or genotoxic properties. Studied NFC samples were not acutely ecotoxic in kinetic luminescent bacteria test (Vibrio fischeri) with studied concentration up to 0.5 % NCF.

M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

SN - 978-951-38-7604-3

T3 - VTT Symposium

SP - 14

EP - 14

BT - Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Pitkänen M, Vartiainen J, Kapanen A. Health and environmental safety aspects of nanofibrillated cellulose. In Novel nanostructured polymeric materials for food packaging and beyond: International Workshop: Book of Abstracts. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2011. p. 14-14. (VTT Symposium; No. 270).