Heavy duty diesel exhaust particles during engine motoring formed by lube oil consumption

Panu Karjalainen, Leónidas Ntziachristos (Corresponding Author), Timo Murtonen, Hugo Wihersaari, Pauli Simonen, Fanni Mylläri, Nils-Olof Nylund, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    29 Citations (Scopus)


    This study reports high numbers of exhaust emissions particles during engine motoring. Such particles were observed in the exhaust of two heavy duty vehicles with no diesel particle filter (DPF), driven on speed ramp tests and transient cycles. A significant fraction of these particles was nonvolatile in nature. The number-weighted size distribution peak was below 10 nm when a thermodenuder was used to remove semivolatile material, growing up to 40 nm after semivolatile species condensation. These particles were found to contribute to 9-13% of total particle number emitted over a complete driving cycle. Engine motoring particles originated from lube oil and evidence suggests that these are of heavy organic or organometallic material. Particles of similar characteristics have been observed in the core particle mode during normal fired engine operation. Their size and chemical character has implications primarily on the environmental toxicity of non-DPF diesel and, secondarily, on the performance of catalytic devices and DPFs. Lube oil formulation measures can be taken to reduce the emission of such particles. (Graph Presented).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)12504-12511
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Issue number22
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • organometallics
    • catalytic devices
    • diesel particles
    • engine operations
    • environmental toxicity
    • heavy duty vehicles
    • heavy-duty diesel
    • organometallic materials
    • semi-volatile materials


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