Heavy duty off-road diesel engine low load particle number emissions and particle control

T. Lähde (Corresponding Author), A. Virtanen, M. Happonen, Christer Söderström, Matti Kytö, J. Keskinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Exhaust gas particle and ion size distributions were measured from an off-road diesel engine complying with the European Stage IIIB emission standard. The measurements were performed at idling and low load conditions on an engine dynamometer. Nucleation-mode particles dominated the diesel exhaust particle number emissions at idle load. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode geometric mean diameter was detected at 10 nm or below. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode charge state implied that it has evolved through a highly ionizing environment before emission from the engine. The determined charging probabilities were 10.0 ± 2.2% for negative and 8.0 ± 2.0% for positive polarity particles. The nonvolatile nucleation particle concentration and size was also shown to be dependent on the lubricant oil composition. The particle emissions were efficiently controlled with a partial filter or with partial filter + selective catalytic reduction (SCR) combination. The particle number removal efficiencies of the aftertreatment systems were over 95% for wet total particle number (>3nm) and over 85% for dry particle total number. Nevertheless, the aftertreatment systems’ efficiencies were around 50% for the soot-mode particles. The low-load nonvolatile nucleation particle emissions were also dependent on the engine load, speed, and fuel injection pressure. The low load particle number emissions followed the soot-core trade-off, similar to medium or high operating loads.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1186-1194
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Volume64
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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diesel engine
road
nucleation
engine
soot
particle
filter
lubricant
trade-off
diesel

Keywords

  • diesel engines
  • diesel exhaust
  • particle emissions
  • idle load
  • low load

Cite this

Lähde, T. ; Virtanen, A. ; Happonen, M. ; Söderström, Christer ; Kytö, Matti ; Keskinen, J. / Heavy duty off-road diesel engine low load particle number emissions and particle control. In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 2014 ; Vol. 64, No. 10. pp. 1186-1194.
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abstract = "Exhaust gas particle and ion size distributions were measured from an off-road diesel engine complying with the European Stage IIIB emission standard. The measurements were performed at idling and low load conditions on an engine dynamometer. Nucleation-mode particles dominated the diesel exhaust particle number emissions at idle load. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode geometric mean diameter was detected at 10 nm or below. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode charge state implied that it has evolved through a highly ionizing environment before emission from the engine. The determined charging probabilities were 10.0 ± 2.2{\%} for negative and 8.0 ± 2.0{\%} for positive polarity particles. The nonvolatile nucleation particle concentration and size was also shown to be dependent on the lubricant oil composition. The particle emissions were efficiently controlled with a partial filter or with partial filter + selective catalytic reduction (SCR) combination. The particle number removal efficiencies of the aftertreatment systems were over 95{\%} for wet total particle number (>3nm) and over 85{\%} for dry particle total number. Nevertheless, the aftertreatment systems’ efficiencies were around 50{\%} for the soot-mode particles. The low-load nonvolatile nucleation particle emissions were also dependent on the engine load, speed, and fuel injection pressure. The low load particle number emissions followed the soot-core trade-off, similar to medium or high operating loads.",
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Heavy duty off-road diesel engine low load particle number emissions and particle control. / Lähde, T. (Corresponding Author); Virtanen, A.; Happonen, M.; Söderström, Christer; Kytö, Matti; Keskinen, J.

In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 64, No. 10, 2014, p. 1186-1194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Heavy duty off-road diesel engine low load particle number emissions and particle control

AU - Lähde, T.

AU - Virtanen, A.

AU - Happonen, M.

AU - Söderström, Christer

AU - Kytö, Matti

AU - Keskinen, J.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Exhaust gas particle and ion size distributions were measured from an off-road diesel engine complying with the European Stage IIIB emission standard. The measurements were performed at idling and low load conditions on an engine dynamometer. Nucleation-mode particles dominated the diesel exhaust particle number emissions at idle load. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode geometric mean diameter was detected at 10 nm or below. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode charge state implied that it has evolved through a highly ionizing environment before emission from the engine. The determined charging probabilities were 10.0 ± 2.2% for negative and 8.0 ± 2.0% for positive polarity particles. The nonvolatile nucleation particle concentration and size was also shown to be dependent on the lubricant oil composition. The particle emissions were efficiently controlled with a partial filter or with partial filter + selective catalytic reduction (SCR) combination. The particle number removal efficiencies of the aftertreatment systems were over 95% for wet total particle number (>3nm) and over 85% for dry particle total number. Nevertheless, the aftertreatment systems’ efficiencies were around 50% for the soot-mode particles. The low-load nonvolatile nucleation particle emissions were also dependent on the engine load, speed, and fuel injection pressure. The low load particle number emissions followed the soot-core trade-off, similar to medium or high operating loads.

AB - Exhaust gas particle and ion size distributions were measured from an off-road diesel engine complying with the European Stage IIIB emission standard. The measurements were performed at idling and low load conditions on an engine dynamometer. Nucleation-mode particles dominated the diesel exhaust particle number emissions at idle load. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode geometric mean diameter was detected at 10 nm or below. The nonvolatile nucleation-mode charge state implied that it has evolved through a highly ionizing environment before emission from the engine. The determined charging probabilities were 10.0 ± 2.2% for negative and 8.0 ± 2.0% for positive polarity particles. The nonvolatile nucleation particle concentration and size was also shown to be dependent on the lubricant oil composition. The particle emissions were efficiently controlled with a partial filter or with partial filter + selective catalytic reduction (SCR) combination. The particle number removal efficiencies of the aftertreatment systems were over 95% for wet total particle number (>3nm) and over 85% for dry particle total number. Nevertheless, the aftertreatment systems’ efficiencies were around 50% for the soot-mode particles. The low-load nonvolatile nucleation particle emissions were also dependent on the engine load, speed, and fuel injection pressure. The low load particle number emissions followed the soot-core trade-off, similar to medium or high operating loads.

KW - diesel engines

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KW - particle emissions

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KW - low load

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