High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions

Juhani Laurikko (Corresponding author), Nils-Olof Nylund, Jari Suominen, Mika P.A. Anttonen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


    VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70-85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15°C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25°C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10°C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-642-33777-2
    ISBN (Print)978-3-642-33776-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventFISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress - Beijing, China
    Duration: 27 Nov 201230 Nov 2012

    Publication series

    SeriesLecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


    ConferenceFISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress


    • Cold ambient conditions
    • E85
    • exhaust emissions
    • fuel composition
    • waste-to-fuel


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