High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions

Juhani Laurikko (Corresponding author), Nils-Olof Nylund, J. Suominen, M.P.A. Anttonen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70-85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15°C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25°C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10°C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress
PublisherSpringer
Pages193-209
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-642-33777-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-33776-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventFISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress - Beijing, China
Duration: 27 Nov 201230 Nov 2012

Publication series

SeriesLecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
Volume191
ISSN1876-1100

Conference

ConferenceFISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress
CountryChina
CityBeijing
Period27/11/1230/11/12

Fingerprint

Ethanol fuels
Ethanol
Chemical analysis
Temperature
Bioethanol
Butane
Aldehydes
Vapor pressure
Butenes
Hydrocarbons
Industry

Keywords

  • Cold ambient conditions
  • E85
  • exhaust emissions
  • fuel composition
  • waste-to-fuel

Cite this

Laurikko, J., Nylund, N-O., Suominen, J., & Anttonen, M. P. A. (2013). High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress (pp. 193-209). Springer. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol.. 191 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33777-2_15
Laurikko, Juhani ; Nylund, Nils-Olof ; Suominen, J. ; Anttonen, M.P.A. / High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions. Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress. Springer, 2013. pp. 193-209 (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 191).
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abstract = "VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70-85 {\%} of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 {\%} ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15°C would be the lower limit of operation with {"}straight{"} E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more {"}engineered{"} fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25°C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10°C lower compared to {"}straight{"} E85 fuel",
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Laurikko, J, Nylund, N-O, Suominen, J & Anttonen, MPA 2013, High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions. in Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress. Springer, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 191, pp. 193-209, FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, Beijing, China, 27/11/12. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33777-2_15

High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions. / Laurikko, Juhani (Corresponding author); Nylund, Nils-Olof; Suominen, J.; Anttonen, M.P.A.

Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress. Springer, 2013. p. 193-209 (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 191).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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AB - VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70-85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15°C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25°C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10°C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel

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Laurikko J, Nylund N-O, Suominen J, Anttonen MPA. High-concentration ethanol fuels for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress. Springer. 2013. p. 193-209. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 191). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33777-2_15