High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women

Katri Juntunen (Corresponding Author), David Laaksonen, Kaisa Poutanen, Leo Niskanen, Hannu Mykkänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

156 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Fiber and whole-cereal intakes may protect against hyperinsulinemia and the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Objective: The aim was to study whether the long-term use of high-fiber rye bread and white-wheat bread modifies glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

Design: The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk test and 8-wk washout periods. The subjects were 20 postmenopausal women [x̄ ± SD age: 59 ± 6.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.5 ± 2.9; baseline fasting serum cholesterol: 6.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L], of whom 3 had impaired glucose tolerance as determined by a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The test breads were high-fiber rye and white-wheat breads, planned to make up ≥20% of energy. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and at the end of both bread periods. The frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test was performed at the run-in and at the end of both bread periods. The acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness were calculated.

Results: The rye bread made up 23.4 ± 4.3% and wheat bread 26.7 ± 8.2% of total energy intake. Compared with that during the run-in period, the acute insulin response increased significantly more during the rye bread period (9.9 ± 24.2%) than during the wheat bread period (2.8 ± 36.3%; P = 0.047). Other measured variables did not change significantly during the study.

Conclusions: Modification of carbohydrate intake by high-fiber rye bread did not alter insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal, hypercholesterolemic women. High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-391
Number of pages7
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume77
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Bread
Insulin Resistance
Triticum
Insulin
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose
Secale
Fasting
Glucose Intolerance
Hyperinsulinism
Energy Intake
Cross-Over Studies
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Body Mass Index
Cholesterol
Carbohydrates

Keywords

  • rye
  • wheat
  • fiber
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin secretion
  • glucose
  • women

Cite this

Juntunen, Katri ; Laaksonen, David ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Niskanen, Leo ; Mykkänen, Hannu. / High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2003 ; Vol. 77, No. 2. pp. 385-391.
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abstract = "Background: Fiber and whole-cereal intakes may protect against hyperinsulinemia and the risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: The aim was to study whether the long-term use of high-fiber rye bread and white-wheat bread modifies glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.Design: The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk test and 8-wk washout periods. The subjects were 20 postmenopausal women [x̄ ± SD age: 59 ± 6.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.5 ± 2.9; baseline fasting serum cholesterol: 6.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L], of whom 3 had impaired glucose tolerance as determined by a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The test breads were high-fiber rye and white-wheat breads, planned to make up ≥20{\%} of energy. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and at the end of both bread periods. The frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test was performed at the run-in and at the end of both bread periods. The acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness were calculated.Results: The rye bread made up 23.4 ± 4.3{\%} and wheat bread 26.7 ± 8.2{\%} of total energy intake. Compared with that during the run-in period, the acute insulin response increased significantly more during the rye bread period (9.9 ± 24.2{\%}) than during the wheat bread period (2.8 ± 36.3{\%}; P = 0.047). Other measured variables did not change significantly during the study.Conclusions: Modification of carbohydrate intake by high-fiber rye bread did not alter insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal, hypercholesterolemic women. High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.",
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High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. / Juntunen, Katri (Corresponding Author); Laaksonen, David; Poutanen, Kaisa; Niskanen, Leo; Mykkänen, Hannu.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 77, No. 2, 2003, p. 385-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women

AU - Juntunen, Katri

AU - Laaksonen, David

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Niskanen, Leo

AU - Mykkänen, Hannu

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Background: Fiber and whole-cereal intakes may protect against hyperinsulinemia and the risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: The aim was to study whether the long-term use of high-fiber rye bread and white-wheat bread modifies glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.Design: The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk test and 8-wk washout periods. The subjects were 20 postmenopausal women [x̄ ± SD age: 59 ± 6.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.5 ± 2.9; baseline fasting serum cholesterol: 6.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L], of whom 3 had impaired glucose tolerance as determined by a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The test breads were high-fiber rye and white-wheat breads, planned to make up ≥20% of energy. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and at the end of both bread periods. The frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test was performed at the run-in and at the end of both bread periods. The acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness were calculated.Results: The rye bread made up 23.4 ± 4.3% and wheat bread 26.7 ± 8.2% of total energy intake. Compared with that during the run-in period, the acute insulin response increased significantly more during the rye bread period (9.9 ± 24.2%) than during the wheat bread period (2.8 ± 36.3%; P = 0.047). Other measured variables did not change significantly during the study.Conclusions: Modification of carbohydrate intake by high-fiber rye bread did not alter insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal, hypercholesterolemic women. High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.

AB - Background: Fiber and whole-cereal intakes may protect against hyperinsulinemia and the risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: The aim was to study whether the long-term use of high-fiber rye bread and white-wheat bread modifies glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.Design: The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk test and 8-wk washout periods. The subjects were 20 postmenopausal women [x̄ ± SD age: 59 ± 6.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.5 ± 2.9; baseline fasting serum cholesterol: 6.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L], of whom 3 had impaired glucose tolerance as determined by a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The test breads were high-fiber rye and white-wheat breads, planned to make up ≥20% of energy. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and at the end of both bread periods. The frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test was performed at the run-in and at the end of both bread periods. The acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness were calculated.Results: The rye bread made up 23.4 ± 4.3% and wheat bread 26.7 ± 8.2% of total energy intake. Compared with that during the run-in period, the acute insulin response increased significantly more during the rye bread period (9.9 ± 24.2%) than during the wheat bread period (2.8 ± 36.3%; P = 0.047). Other measured variables did not change significantly during the study.Conclusions: Modification of carbohydrate intake by high-fiber rye bread did not alter insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal, hypercholesterolemic women. High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.

KW - rye

KW - wheat

KW - fiber

KW - insulin sensitivity

KW - insulin secretion

KW - glucose

KW - women

M3 - Article

VL - 77

SP - 385

EP - 391

JO - The American journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -