High performance cellulose nanocomposites: Comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose

Koon Yang Lee, Tekla Tammelin (Corresponding Author), Kerstin Schulfter, Harri Kiiskinen, Juha Samela, Alexander Bismarck (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

140 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This work investigates the surface and bulk properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as their reinforcing ability in polymer nanocomposites. BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m -1 compared to NFC (41 mN m -1). The thermal degradation temperature in both nitrogen and air atmosphere of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC as determined by XRD, measured to be 71% for BC as compared to NFC of 41%. Nanocellulose papers were prepared from BC and NFC. Both papers possessed similar tensile moduli and strengths of 12 GPa and 110 MPa, respectively. Nanocomposites were manufactured by impregnating the nanocellulose paper with an epoxy resin using vacuum assisted resin infusion. The cellulose reinforced epoxy nanocomposites had a stiffness and strength of approximately ∼8 GPa and ∼100 MPa at an equivalent fiber volume fraction of 60 vol.-%. In terms of the reinforcing ability of NFC and BC in a polymer matrix, no significant difference between NFC and BC was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4078-4086
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Volume4
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • bacterial cellulose
  • mechanical properties
  • nanocomposites
  • nanofibrillated cellulose
  • resin infusion

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