High strength modified nanofibrillated cellulose-polyvinyl alcohol films

Sanna Virtanen, Sauli Vuoti (Corresponding Author), Harri Heikkinen, Panu Lahtinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study surface-modified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used at low levels (0.5 to1.5 wt%) as a reinforcement in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. The modified-NFC-PVA composite films prepared using the solution casting technique showed improved mechanical performance. Birch pulp cellulose was initially modified by allylation using a solvent-free, dry modification method followed by subsequent epoxidation of the allyl groups and finally grinding the pulp to yield epoxy-NFC. In order to obtain optimal mechanical performance, epoxy-NFC with different degrees of substitution was evaluated in the reinforcement of PVA. The addition of 1 wt% epoxy- NFC (degree of substitution, DS 0.07) enhanced the modulus, strength, and strain of pure PVA film by 307, 139 and 23 %, respectively, thus producing the best performing film. The results demonstrate the favourable effect of chemically functionalized NFC on the mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol compared to unmodified NFC as reinforcement. In order to improve industrial and economic feasibility, the manufacture of the composite was also done in situ by grinding cellulose directly in PVA to produce the new biocomposite in a one-step process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3561-3571
JournalCellulose
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • nanocellulose
  • nanofibrillated cellulose
  • polyvinyl alcohol
  • readtive grinding
  • chemical surface modification
  • nanocomposites

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