In common engine exhausts particle measurements the sample temperature must be decreased to suitable level for measurement instrument, but when doing so there is a risk of water, sulfuric compound and VOC condensation and even nucleation. When the aim of the research is to study solid exhaust particles, this problem is typically handled with a dilution system that decreases the temperature and vapor pressures in two dilution stages including thermal treatment. However with low-emission vehicles this might also lower the particle concentration below instrument detection limit. Also, despite the controlled temperature profile dilution might still affect the size, composition and structure of particles, and uncertainty in dilution factor might decrease the measurement accuracy. To avoid these issues a new version of the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor ELPI+ was developed for high temperature, low concentration measurement. In this system the detector part, impactor, is heated to a high temperature up to 180C. This allows high temperature tailpipe aerosol measurement without dilution, without sample cooling and without VOC condensation. In other words, the particles are measured as they exist in the tailpipe. The system was tested with a 2-litre passenger car engine that was modified for natural gas fuel, known to produce very low particle emissions. In the test setup the exhaust gas composition was made adjustable by adding methane, propane, ethane and ethene to tailpipe-extracted side flow to mimic large bore engine (ship / power plant) emission composition. The developed High Temperature ELPI+ was used to measure the particle size distribution and concentration from tailpipe environment before catalysts. A two-mode particle size distribution was detected, one mode at below 10 nm particle size range and the other mode at around 30 nm. A volume-weighed distribution also shows a large particle mode at around 750 nm. In this presentation we describe the HT-ELPI+ and the engine and exhaust conditioning setup and present the particle measurement results from the system. We also discuss about the detected particles and their origin and present comparison results from other instruments that simultaneously measured diluted exhaust.
|Title of host publication||Proceedings of the 25th Real-World Emissions Workshop|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
|MoE publication type||B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings|
|Event||25th Annual Real-World Emissions Workshop|
- Long Beach, United States
Duration: 22 Mar 2015 → 25 Mar 2015
Conference number: 25
https://crcao.org/workshops/RWE/25th_RWE_Workshop/EMarticleconfhighlights.pdf (25th Real-World Emissions Workshop)
|Workshop||25th Annual Real-World Emissions Workshop|
|Period||22/03/15 → 25/03/15|
Niemelä, V., Lamminen, E., Lehtoranta, K., & Rönkkö, T. (2015). High temperature aerosol measurement: an alternative to dilution approach. In Proceedings of the 25th Real-World Emissions Workshop CRC Press.