High-Throughput Tailoring of Nanocellulose Films: From Complex Bio-Based Materials to Defined Multifunctional Architectures

Alexey Khakalo (Corresponding Author), Tapio Mäkelä, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Hannes Orelma, Tekla Tammelin (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
138 Downloads (Pure)


This paper demonstrates a high-throughput approach to fabricate nanocellulose films with multifunctional performance using conventionally existing unit operations. The approach comprises cast-coating and direct interfacial atmospheric plasma-assisted gas-phase modification along with the microscale patterning technique (nanoimprint lithography, NIL), all applied in roll-to-roll mode, to introduce organic functionalities in conjunction with structural manipulation. Our strategy results in multifunctional cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) films in which the high optical transmittance (∼90%) is retained while the haze can be adjusted (2-35%). Concomitantly, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance can be tuned (50-21 mJ/m2 with the water contact angle ranging from ∼20 up to ∼120°), while intrinsic hygroscopicity of CNF films is not significantly compromised. Therefore, a challenge to produce multifunctional bio-based materials with properties defined by various high-performance applications conjoined to the lack of efficient processing strategies is elucidated. Overall, economically and ecologically viable strategy, which was realized by facile and upscalable unit operations using the R2R technology, is introduced to expand the properties' spaces and thus offer a vast variety of interesting applications for CNF films.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7428-7438
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Bio Materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cellulose nanofibrils film
  • light management
  • plasma polymerization
  • surface chemical modification


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