Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds

Hannu Hänninen, Anssi Brederholm, Tapio Saukkonen, Hans Gripenberg, Aki Toivonen, Ulla Ehrnsten, Pertti Aaltonen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

The operating experience of major nuclear power plant (NPP) pressure boundary components has recently shown that dissimilar metal weld joints can markedly affect the plant availability and safety because of increased incidences of environment-assisted cracking (EAC, PWSCC) of alloy 600 and corresponding weld metals (alloys 182/82). Alloy 690 and associated weld metals (alloys 152/52) are widely used for repair and replacement of the affected thick-section components. The selection of new materials relies mainly on laboratory results and short-term service experience. The long-term behavior of these materials and their performance in the plant has still to be demonstrated. Weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking of the studied nickel-base materials was evaluated based on the Varestraint test results obtained with weld metals of different chromium contents. The microstructures and microchemistry of the multi-pass nickel-base alloy welds was studied by FEG-SEM/EDS techniques and were found to be very different from those of the wrought and recrystallized nickel-base materials. Additionally, the weld residual stresses were measured and analyzed by a novel Contour method suitable for through-thickness residual stress determination. The studied nickel-base material welds were exposed to doped steam test environment and crack initiation susceptibility of them was studied. The results showed the markedly higher susceptibility to EAC of alloy 182 weld metal as compared to the other studied alloys, i.e., alloy 152, 52 and 82.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages181
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-6953-3
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-6952-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes
Number2399
ISSN1235-0605

Fingerprint

Dissimilar metals
Welds
Nickel
Metals
Residual stresses
Weldability
Crack initiation
Nuclear power plants
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Chromium
Repair
Steam
Availability
Microstructure
Scanning electron microscopy

Keywords

  • hot cracking
  • environment-assisted cracking
  • nuclear power plants
  • nickel base alloys
  • carbon steels
  • austenitic stainless steels
  • weldability
  • dissimilar metal welds
  • Varestraint tests
  • residual stress measurement
  • microstructural analysis
  • crack initiation, crack growth

Cite this

Hänninen, H., Brederholm, A., Saukkonen, T., Gripenberg, H., Toivonen, A., Ehrnsten, U., & Aaltonen, P. (2007). Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, No. 2399
Hänninen, Hannu ; Brederholm, Anssi ; Saukkonen, Tapio ; Gripenberg, Hans ; Toivonen, Aki ; Ehrnsten, Ulla ; Aaltonen, Pertti. / Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 181 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2399).
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Hänninen, H, Brederholm, A, Saukkonen, T, Gripenberg, H, Toivonen, A, Ehrnsten, U & Aaltonen, P 2007, Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, no. 2399, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds. / Hänninen, Hannu; Brederholm, Anssi; Saukkonen, Tapio; Gripenberg, Hans; Toivonen, Aki; Ehrnsten, Ulla; Aaltonen, Pertti.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 181 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2399).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds

AU - Hänninen, Hannu

AU - Brederholm, Anssi

AU - Saukkonen, Tapio

AU - Gripenberg, Hans

AU - Toivonen, Aki

AU - Ehrnsten, Ulla

AU - Aaltonen, Pertti

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - The operating experience of major nuclear power plant (NPP) pressure boundary components has recently shown that dissimilar metal weld joints can markedly affect the plant availability and safety because of increased incidences of environment-assisted cracking (EAC, PWSCC) of alloy 600 and corresponding weld metals (alloys 182/82). Alloy 690 and associated weld metals (alloys 152/52) are widely used for repair and replacement of the affected thick-section components. The selection of new materials relies mainly on laboratory results and short-term service experience. The long-term behavior of these materials and their performance in the plant has still to be demonstrated. Weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking of the studied nickel-base materials was evaluated based on the Varestraint test results obtained with weld metals of different chromium contents. The microstructures and microchemistry of the multi-pass nickel-base alloy welds was studied by FEG-SEM/EDS techniques and were found to be very different from those of the wrought and recrystallized nickel-base materials. Additionally, the weld residual stresses were measured and analyzed by a novel Contour method suitable for through-thickness residual stress determination. The studied nickel-base material welds were exposed to doped steam test environment and crack initiation susceptibility of them was studied. The results showed the markedly higher susceptibility to EAC of alloy 182 weld metal as compared to the other studied alloys, i.e., alloy 152, 52 and 82.

AB - The operating experience of major nuclear power plant (NPP) pressure boundary components has recently shown that dissimilar metal weld joints can markedly affect the plant availability and safety because of increased incidences of environment-assisted cracking (EAC, PWSCC) of alloy 600 and corresponding weld metals (alloys 182/82). Alloy 690 and associated weld metals (alloys 152/52) are widely used for repair and replacement of the affected thick-section components. The selection of new materials relies mainly on laboratory results and short-term service experience. The long-term behavior of these materials and their performance in the plant has still to be demonstrated. Weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking of the studied nickel-base materials was evaluated based on the Varestraint test results obtained with weld metals of different chromium contents. The microstructures and microchemistry of the multi-pass nickel-base alloy welds was studied by FEG-SEM/EDS techniques and were found to be very different from those of the wrought and recrystallized nickel-base materials. Additionally, the weld residual stresses were measured and analyzed by a novel Contour method suitable for through-thickness residual stress determination. The studied nickel-base material welds were exposed to doped steam test environment and crack initiation susceptibility of them was studied. The results showed the markedly higher susceptibility to EAC of alloy 182 weld metal as compared to the other studied alloys, i.e., alloy 152, 52 and 82.

KW - hot cracking

KW - environment-assisted cracking

KW - nuclear power plants

KW - nickel base alloys

KW - carbon steels

KW - austenitic stainless steels

KW - weldability

KW - dissimilar metal welds

KW - Varestraint tests

KW - residual stress measurement

KW - microstructural analysis

KW - crack initiation, crack growth

M3 - Report

SN - 978-951-38-6952-6

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes

BT - Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

ER -

Hänninen H, Brederholm A, Saukkonen T, Gripenberg H, Toivonen A, Ehrnsten U et al. Hot cracking and environment-assisted cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 181 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2399).