How to Achieve a More Resource-Efficient and Climate-Neutral Energy System by 2030? Views of Nordic Stakeholders

Sarah Kilpeläinen, Pami Aalto, Pasi Toivanen, Pinja Lehtonen, Hannele Holttinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The Nordic countries pursue ambitious energy transition goals through national energy policies and in the framework of Nordic cooperation. We propose that the transition is realistic only if it involves the public, private, and nongovernmental organization sectors as regulators, innovators, and advocates of relevant policies and solutions representing the multitude of interests involved. We examine these interests through Q methodological experiments, where 43 expert stakeholders’ rank-order statements concerning their preferred policy measures vis-à-vis the electric energy system. Factor analysis of these subjectively held views produces three distinct views. The first two enjoy strong inter-Nordic support. The first view prioritizes market and grid development, and the second view prioritizes electric transport, and solar and wind power. The third, “Finnish” view seeks to enhance security of supply, also via microgrids, and prioritizes biofuels over electric transport. Examining the common ground among the three views, we find that enhanced cooperation requires reinforced stakeholder interaction and policy coordination.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0001
Pages (from-to)448-472
JournalReview of Policy Research
Issue number4
Early online date21 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • climate change
  • developed countries
  • energy
  • environment


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