Hybrid films from cellulose nanomaterials—properties and defined optical patterns

Ilona Leppänen (Corresponding Author), Ari Hokkanen, Monika Österberg, Mika Vähä-Nissi, Ali Harlin, Hannes Orelma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


Polymer composites with nanocellulose as the reinforcing agent often lack good compatibility between the two components. In this study, we have combined cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) in different ratios to create all-cellulose films consisting of entirely discrete nanocellulose objects that complement each other. Then further, by applying the controlled dissolution concept we were able to create defined optical patterns on the films. The films consisting of 50% CNCs showed equivalent mechanical and barrier properties when compared to the pure CNF film. In addition, the incorporation of CNCs enabled tuning of the films’ optical properties. To modify this film further, we prepared specific patterns on the film by controlled dissolution by impregnating the films with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) followed by heat treatment and pressure. Mechanical testing and optical measurements of the patterned films showed the effect of the dissolved cellulose regions on the film properties. The controlled dissolution of the films increased the tensile strength of the films, however, the strain was decreased quite significantly. Altogether, the CNF/CNC hybrid films combine both nanomaterials’ good properties. Cellulose nanofibrils have film-forming ability and incorporation of CNCs can further tune the optical, mechanical, and barrier properties, to optimize the films for varying applications such as optical sensors and packaging materials. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8551-8567
Number of pages17
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • CNC
  • CNF
  • Compression
  • Hybrid
  • Nanocellulose film
  • Optical properties


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