Hybrid Integration of VCSEL and 3-μm Silicon Waveguide Based on a Monolithic Lens System

Chenhui Li, Srivathsa Bhat, Ripalta Stabile, Yuchen Song, Christian Neumeyr, Oded Raz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We design an optical interface system for vertically coupling between Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers and 3-μm silicon waveguides. The system includes a photoresist lens and a total internal reflection mirror, which allows for passive alignment and flip-chip bonding of VCSELs. The simulated coupling loss is 0.7dB, in optimal conditions, which increases to 1 dB when 3-μm and 20-μm alignment tolerances are considered in lateral and longitudinal directions, respectively. The system is built by post-processing lens and metallic wiring on the backside of a 3-μm silicon photonic platform. After flip-chip bonding and embedding of the VCSELs, the system performance is characterized, and VCSEL-to-waveguide coupling efficiency of -7.5 dB is obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)883-886
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5
Early online date16 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • Couplings
  • flip-chip bonding
  • Lenses
  • microlens
  • Mirrors
  • Optical waveguides
  • Resists
  • silicon photonic waveguide
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
  • Waveguide lasers


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