Hybrid user association with proactive auxiliary intervention for multitier cellular networks

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


    In this paper, we consider a hybrid user association (HUA) problem for load balancing of multitier cellular networks. The proposed hierarchical HUA approach builds on a combination of decentralized user association (DUA) and auxiliary intervention of a central control unit (CCU). A major challenge with the CCU intervention is the time interval determined by a selected CCU control cycle during which the DUA must accept all users that satisfy the prevailing association criterion while proactively mitigating potential resource depletions. Consequently, the primary focus of this work is on relating the control cycle of the CCU intervention with the incipient resource depletions, according to a maximum allowed resource depletion probability. By uniquely combining a set of mathematical tools from stochastic geometry and queueing theory, we present a novel HUA method which evaluates the association bias values of the DUA according to a CCU-optimized load vector and enables tier-based resource depletion probability provisioning over finite control cycles. The trade-offs between the proposed HUA method and the standard DUA approach are demonstrated via network simulations with flow-level spatiotemporal dynamics.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication2019 IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2019
    PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    Number of pages6
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-1217-6
    ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-1218-3
    Publication statusPublished - 2019
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event89th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2019 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Duration: 28 Apr 20191 May 2019

    Publication series

    SeriesIEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Papers


    Conference89th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2019
    CityKuala Lumpur


    The work was partially funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme under grant agreements no. 671639 (COHERENT) and no. 814956 (5G-DRIVE) as well as by VTT’s internal research projects. The paper reflects only the authors views. The funding organizations are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.


    • Load balancing
    • Network heterogeneity
    • Predictive congestion control
    • Queueing theory
    • Stochastic geometry


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