Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes

Pirkko Forssell (Corresponding Author), Hanna Kontkanen, Henk A. Schols, Sandra Hinz, Vincent G.H. Eijsink, Janneke Treimo, Jim A. Robertson, Keith W. Waldron, Craig B. Faulds, Johanna Buchert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this work four commercial cellulase‐hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,000 nkat/g xylanase for 5 h at 50°C resulted in the solubilisation of 13–14% of the BSG dry weight as monosaccharides. This corresponded to the solubilisation of 26–28% of the original carbohydrates and 30–34% of original arabinoxylans, depending on the enzyme cocktail used. The relatively low hydrolysis level indicates that the majority of the BSG biomass is rather recalcitrant towards the cellulose‐hemicellulase enzyme mixtures applied in this study. The enzyme activity profile had a crucial impact on the chemistry of the oligosaccharides produced through the solubilisation of BSG. The presence of feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity in the enzyme cocktail resulted in the production of free ferulic acid, arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides and their corresponding monomers. However, when the enzyme mixture was devoid of FAE activity, ferulic acid was still bound to the oligosaccharides. The unhydrolysed fraction was still found to contain over 40% of carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment despite the extensive enzyme dosages used. The protein fraction remained largely unaffected (i.e. insoluble) by the carbohydrate‐disrupting enzyme treatments. In addition to the recalcitrant carbohydrates, the residue was enriched with lignin and lipid type structures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-314
JournalJournal of the Institute of Brewing
Volume114
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

spent grains
brewers grains
solubilization
enzymatic treatment
Hydrolysis
hydrolysis
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
ferulic acid
Enzymes
enzymes
oligosaccharides
enzyme activity
arabinoxylan
xylanases
monosaccharides
Oligosaccharides
lignin
chemistry
Monosaccharides

Keywords

  • brewers' spent grain
  • cellulase
  • hydrolysis
  • xylanase

Cite this

Forssell, P., Kontkanen, H., Schols, H. A., Hinz, S., Eijsink, V. G. H., Treimo, J., ... Buchert, J. (2008). Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 114(4), 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2008.tb00774.x
Forssell, Pirkko ; Kontkanen, Hanna ; Schols, Henk A. ; Hinz, Sandra ; Eijsink, Vincent G.H. ; Treimo, Janneke ; Robertson, Jim A. ; Waldron, Keith W. ; Faulds, Craig B. ; Buchert, Johanna. / Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes. In: Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2008 ; Vol. 114, No. 4. pp. 306-314.
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Forssell, P, Kontkanen, H, Schols, HA, Hinz, S, Eijsink, VGH, Treimo, J, Robertson, JA, Waldron, KW, Faulds, CB & Buchert, J 2008, 'Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes', Journal of the Institute of Brewing, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2008.tb00774.x

Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes. / Forssell, Pirkko (Corresponding Author); Kontkanen, Hanna; Schols, Henk A.; Hinz, Sandra; Eijsink, Vincent G.H.; Treimo, Janneke; Robertson, Jim A.; Waldron, Keith W.; Faulds, Craig B.; Buchert, Johanna.

In: Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Vol. 114, No. 4, 2008, p. 306-314.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Hydrolysis of brewer's spent grain by carbohydrate degrading enzymes

AU - Forssell, Pirkko

AU - Kontkanen, Hanna

AU - Schols, Henk A.

AU - Hinz, Sandra

AU - Eijsink, Vincent G.H.

AU - Treimo, Janneke

AU - Robertson, Jim A.

AU - Waldron, Keith W.

AU - Faulds, Craig B.

AU - Buchert, Johanna

PY - 2008

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N2 - In this work four commercial cellulase‐hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,000 nkat/g xylanase for 5 h at 50°C resulted in the solubilisation of 13–14% of the BSG dry weight as monosaccharides. This corresponded to the solubilisation of 26–28% of the original carbohydrates and 30–34% of original arabinoxylans, depending on the enzyme cocktail used. The relatively low hydrolysis level indicates that the majority of the BSG biomass is rather recalcitrant towards the cellulose‐hemicellulase enzyme mixtures applied in this study. The enzyme activity profile had a crucial impact on the chemistry of the oligosaccharides produced through the solubilisation of BSG. The presence of feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity in the enzyme cocktail resulted in the production of free ferulic acid, arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides and their corresponding monomers. However, when the enzyme mixture was devoid of FAE activity, ferulic acid was still bound to the oligosaccharides. The unhydrolysed fraction was still found to contain over 40% of carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment despite the extensive enzyme dosages used. The protein fraction remained largely unaffected (i.e. insoluble) by the carbohydrate‐disrupting enzyme treatments. In addition to the recalcitrant carbohydrates, the residue was enriched with lignin and lipid type structures.

AB - In this work four commercial cellulase‐hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,000 nkat/g xylanase for 5 h at 50°C resulted in the solubilisation of 13–14% of the BSG dry weight as monosaccharides. This corresponded to the solubilisation of 26–28% of the original carbohydrates and 30–34% of original arabinoxylans, depending on the enzyme cocktail used. The relatively low hydrolysis level indicates that the majority of the BSG biomass is rather recalcitrant towards the cellulose‐hemicellulase enzyme mixtures applied in this study. The enzyme activity profile had a crucial impact on the chemistry of the oligosaccharides produced through the solubilisation of BSG. The presence of feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity in the enzyme cocktail resulted in the production of free ferulic acid, arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides and their corresponding monomers. However, when the enzyme mixture was devoid of FAE activity, ferulic acid was still bound to the oligosaccharides. The unhydrolysed fraction was still found to contain over 40% of carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment despite the extensive enzyme dosages used. The protein fraction remained largely unaffected (i.e. insoluble) by the carbohydrate‐disrupting enzyme treatments. In addition to the recalcitrant carbohydrates, the residue was enriched with lignin and lipid type structures.

KW - brewers' spent grain

KW - cellulase

KW - hydrolysis

KW - xylanase

U2 - 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2008.tb00774.x

DO - 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2008.tb00774.x

M3 - Article

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EP - 314

JO - Journal of the Institute of Brewing

JF - Journal of the Institute of Brewing

SN - 0046-9750

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