Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

Ghulam Shere Raza, Johanna Maukonen, Markus Makinen, Piritta Niemi, Laura Niiranen, Ashley A. Hibberd, Kaisa Poutanen, Johanna Buchert, Karl Heinz Herzig (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Insoluble residue (INS) is a lignin-rich fraction of brewer's spent grain (BSG) that also contains β-glucan and arabinoxylan, the major constituents of dietary fiber. We investigated the effects of INS in diet-induced obese mice in terms of lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Male mice (C57bl6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a HFD + 20% INS, a HFD + 20% cellulose (CEL), a HFD with a combination of 20% INS-CEL (1:1), or a control diet for 14 weeks. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed after 12 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids, bile acid, and fecal bile acid were measured after 14 weeks of feeding, and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight gain was significantly reduced with all fibers, but only INS and INS-CEL decreased fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol compared to HFD. CEL and INS-CEL significantly improved insulin resistance. Fecal bile acids were significantly increased by all fibers, but there was no change in plasma bile acid. Clostridium leptum was increased with all fibers, but universal bacterial diversity was only with INS and INS-CEL. In addition, INS significantly increased the abundance of Bacteriodes, while CEL decreased Atopobium and Lactobacillus. INS feeding significantly upregulated various genes of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, such as Srebp2, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Pparα, Fxr, and Pxr, in the liver. INS, INS-CEL, and CEL significantly attenuated liver steatosis. Our results suggest that INS from BSG induced beneficial systemic changes in mice via gut microbiota, bile acids, and gene expression in the liver.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1104-1114
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume67
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Fingerprint

spent grains
brewers grains
cholesteremic effect
Lignin
High Fat Diet
high fat diet
Nutrition
Cellulose
lignin
cellulose
Fats
bile acids
Bile Acids and Salts
mice
dietary fiber
Liver
Plasmas
Gene expression
fasting
Clostridium leptum

Keywords

  • bile acids
  • dietary fiber
  • high-fat diet
  • microbiome
  • plasma cholesterol

Cite this

Raza, Ghulam Shere ; Maukonen, Johanna ; Makinen, Markus ; Niemi, Piritta ; Niiranen, Laura ; Hibberd, Ashley A. ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Buchert, Johanna ; Herzig, Karl Heinz. / Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2019 ; Vol. 67, No. 4. pp. 1104-1114.
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title = "Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet",
abstract = "Insoluble residue (INS) is a lignin-rich fraction of brewer's spent grain (BSG) that also contains β-glucan and arabinoxylan, the major constituents of dietary fiber. We investigated the effects of INS in diet-induced obese mice in terms of lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Male mice (C57bl6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a HFD + 20{\%} INS, a HFD + 20{\%} cellulose (CEL), a HFD with a combination of 20{\%} INS-CEL (1:1), or a control diet for 14 weeks. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed after 12 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids, bile acid, and fecal bile acid were measured after 14 weeks of feeding, and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight gain was significantly reduced with all fibers, but only INS and INS-CEL decreased fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol compared to HFD. CEL and INS-CEL significantly improved insulin resistance. Fecal bile acids were significantly increased by all fibers, but there was no change in plasma bile acid. Clostridium leptum was increased with all fibers, but universal bacterial diversity was only with INS and INS-CEL. In addition, INS significantly increased the abundance of Bacteriodes, while CEL decreased Atopobium and Lactobacillus. INS feeding significantly upregulated various genes of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, such as Srebp2, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Pparα, Fxr, and Pxr, in the liver. INS, INS-CEL, and CEL significantly attenuated liver steatosis. Our results suggest that INS from BSG induced beneficial systemic changes in mice via gut microbiota, bile acids, and gene expression in the liver.",
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author = "Raza, {Ghulam Shere} and Johanna Maukonen and Markus Makinen and Piritta Niemi and Laura Niiranen and Hibberd, {Ashley A.} and Kaisa Poutanen and Johanna Buchert and Herzig, {Karl Heinz}",
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Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. / Raza, Ghulam Shere; Maukonen, Johanna; Makinen, Markus; Niemi, Piritta; Niiranen, Laura; Hibberd, Ashley A.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Buchert, Johanna; Herzig, Karl Heinz (Corresponding Author).

In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2019, p. 1104-1114.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

AU - Raza, Ghulam Shere

AU - Maukonen, Johanna

AU - Makinen, Markus

AU - Niemi, Piritta

AU - Niiranen, Laura

AU - Hibberd, Ashley A.

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Buchert, Johanna

AU - Herzig, Karl Heinz

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Insoluble residue (INS) is a lignin-rich fraction of brewer's spent grain (BSG) that also contains β-glucan and arabinoxylan, the major constituents of dietary fiber. We investigated the effects of INS in diet-induced obese mice in terms of lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Male mice (C57bl6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a HFD + 20% INS, a HFD + 20% cellulose (CEL), a HFD with a combination of 20% INS-CEL (1:1), or a control diet for 14 weeks. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed after 12 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids, bile acid, and fecal bile acid were measured after 14 weeks of feeding, and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight gain was significantly reduced with all fibers, but only INS and INS-CEL decreased fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol compared to HFD. CEL and INS-CEL significantly improved insulin resistance. Fecal bile acids were significantly increased by all fibers, but there was no change in plasma bile acid. Clostridium leptum was increased with all fibers, but universal bacterial diversity was only with INS and INS-CEL. In addition, INS significantly increased the abundance of Bacteriodes, while CEL decreased Atopobium and Lactobacillus. INS feeding significantly upregulated various genes of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, such as Srebp2, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Pparα, Fxr, and Pxr, in the liver. INS, INS-CEL, and CEL significantly attenuated liver steatosis. Our results suggest that INS from BSG induced beneficial systemic changes in mice via gut microbiota, bile acids, and gene expression in the liver.

AB - Insoluble residue (INS) is a lignin-rich fraction of brewer's spent grain (BSG) that also contains β-glucan and arabinoxylan, the major constituents of dietary fiber. We investigated the effects of INS in diet-induced obese mice in terms of lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Male mice (C57bl6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a HFD + 20% INS, a HFD + 20% cellulose (CEL), a HFD with a combination of 20% INS-CEL (1:1), or a control diet for 14 weeks. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed after 12 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids, bile acid, and fecal bile acid were measured after 14 weeks of feeding, and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight gain was significantly reduced with all fibers, but only INS and INS-CEL decreased fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol compared to HFD. CEL and INS-CEL significantly improved insulin resistance. Fecal bile acids were significantly increased by all fibers, but there was no change in plasma bile acid. Clostridium leptum was increased with all fibers, but universal bacterial diversity was only with INS and INS-CEL. In addition, INS significantly increased the abundance of Bacteriodes, while CEL decreased Atopobium and Lactobacillus. INS feeding significantly upregulated various genes of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, such as Srebp2, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Pparα, Fxr, and Pxr, in the liver. INS, INS-CEL, and CEL significantly attenuated liver steatosis. Our results suggest that INS from BSG induced beneficial systemic changes in mice via gut microbiota, bile acids, and gene expression in the liver.

KW - bile acids

KW - dietary fiber

KW - high-fat diet

KW - microbiome

KW - plasma cholesterol

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U2 - 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05770

DO - 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05770

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