Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy

J. Kuva, J. Sammaljärvi (Corresponding Author), J. Parkkonen, M. Siitari-Kauppi, M. Lehtonen, T. Turpeinen, J. Timonen, M. Voutilainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

We set out to study connected porosity of crystalline rock using X‐ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (SEM‐EDS) with caesium chloride as a contrast agent. Caesium is an important radionuclide regarding the final deposition of nuclear waste and also forms dense phases that can be readily distinguished by X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. Six samples from two sites, Olkiluoto (Finland) and Grimsel (Switzerland), where transport properties of crystalline rock are being studied in situ, were investigated using X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. The samples were imaged with X‐ray microtomography, immersed in a saturated caesium chloride (CsCl) solution for 141, 249 and 365 days and imaged again with X‐ray microtomography. CsCl inside the samples was successfully detected with X‐ray microtomography and it had completely penetrated all six samples. SEM‐EDS elemental mapping was used to study the location of caesium in the samples in detail with quantitative mineral information. Precipitated CsCl was found in the connected pore space in Olkiluoto veined gneiss and in lesser amounts in Grimsel granodiorite. Only a very small amount of precipitated CsCl was observed in the Grimsel granodiorite samples. In Olkiluoto veined gneiss caesium was found in pinitised areas of cordierite grains. In the pinitised areas caesium was found in notable excess compared to chloride, possibly due to the combination of small pore size and negatively charged surfaces. In addition, elevated concentrations of caesium were found in kaolinite and sphalerite phases. The findings concerning the location of CsCl were congruent with X‐ray microtomography.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-109
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Volume270
Issue number1
Early online date2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

X-Ray Microtomography
Porosity
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Contrast Media
X-Rays
Cesium
Spectrum Analysis
Radioactive Waste
Kaolin
Finland
Switzerland
Radioisotopes
Minerals
cesium chloride
Chlorides

Keywords

  • Connected porosity
  • crystalline rock
  • energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • X-ray microtomography

Cite this

Kuva, J. ; Sammaljärvi, J. ; Parkkonen, J. ; Siitari-Kauppi, M. ; Lehtonen, M. ; Turpeinen, T. ; Timonen, J. ; Voutilainen, M. / Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy. In: Journal of Microscopy. 2018 ; Vol. 270, No. 1. pp. 98-109.
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abstract = "We set out to study connected porosity of crystalline rock using X‐ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (SEM‐EDS) with caesium chloride as a contrast agent. Caesium is an important radionuclide regarding the final deposition of nuclear waste and also forms dense phases that can be readily distinguished by X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. Six samples from two sites, Olkiluoto (Finland) and Grimsel (Switzerland), where transport properties of crystalline rock are being studied in situ, were investigated using X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. The samples were imaged with X‐ray microtomography, immersed in a saturated caesium chloride (CsCl) solution for 141, 249 and 365 days and imaged again with X‐ray microtomography. CsCl inside the samples was successfully detected with X‐ray microtomography and it had completely penetrated all six samples. SEM‐EDS elemental mapping was used to study the location of caesium in the samples in detail with quantitative mineral information. Precipitated CsCl was found in the connected pore space in Olkiluoto veined gneiss and in lesser amounts in Grimsel granodiorite. Only a very small amount of precipitated CsCl was observed in the Grimsel granodiorite samples. In Olkiluoto veined gneiss caesium was found in pinitised areas of cordierite grains. In the pinitised areas caesium was found in notable excess compared to chloride, possibly due to the combination of small pore size and negatively charged surfaces. In addition, elevated concentrations of caesium were found in kaolinite and sphalerite phases. The findings concerning the location of CsCl were congruent with X‐ray microtomography.",
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Kuva, J, Sammaljärvi, J, Parkkonen, J, Siitari-Kauppi, M, Lehtonen, M, Turpeinen, T, Timonen, J & Voutilainen, M 2018, 'Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy', Journal of Microscopy, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 98-109. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12661

Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy. / Kuva, J.; Sammaljärvi, J. (Corresponding Author); Parkkonen, J.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Lehtonen, M.; Turpeinen, T.; Timonen, J.; Voutilainen, M.

In: Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 270, No. 1, 2018, p. 98-109.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy

AU - Kuva, J.

AU - Sammaljärvi, J.

AU - Parkkonen, J.

AU - Siitari-Kauppi, M.

AU - Lehtonen, M.

AU - Turpeinen, T.

AU - Timonen, J.

AU - Voutilainen, M.

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N2 - We set out to study connected porosity of crystalline rock using X‐ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (SEM‐EDS) with caesium chloride as a contrast agent. Caesium is an important radionuclide regarding the final deposition of nuclear waste and also forms dense phases that can be readily distinguished by X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. Six samples from two sites, Olkiluoto (Finland) and Grimsel (Switzerland), where transport properties of crystalline rock are being studied in situ, were investigated using X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. The samples were imaged with X‐ray microtomography, immersed in a saturated caesium chloride (CsCl) solution for 141, 249 and 365 days and imaged again with X‐ray microtomography. CsCl inside the samples was successfully detected with X‐ray microtomography and it had completely penetrated all six samples. SEM‐EDS elemental mapping was used to study the location of caesium in the samples in detail with quantitative mineral information. Precipitated CsCl was found in the connected pore space in Olkiluoto veined gneiss and in lesser amounts in Grimsel granodiorite. Only a very small amount of precipitated CsCl was observed in the Grimsel granodiorite samples. In Olkiluoto veined gneiss caesium was found in pinitised areas of cordierite grains. In the pinitised areas caesium was found in notable excess compared to chloride, possibly due to the combination of small pore size and negatively charged surfaces. In addition, elevated concentrations of caesium were found in kaolinite and sphalerite phases. The findings concerning the location of CsCl were congruent with X‐ray microtomography.

AB - We set out to study connected porosity of crystalline rock using X‐ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (SEM‐EDS) with caesium chloride as a contrast agent. Caesium is an important radionuclide regarding the final deposition of nuclear waste and also forms dense phases that can be readily distinguished by X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. Six samples from two sites, Olkiluoto (Finland) and Grimsel (Switzerland), where transport properties of crystalline rock are being studied in situ, were investigated using X‐ray microtomography and SEM‐EDS. The samples were imaged with X‐ray microtomography, immersed in a saturated caesium chloride (CsCl) solution for 141, 249 and 365 days and imaged again with X‐ray microtomography. CsCl inside the samples was successfully detected with X‐ray microtomography and it had completely penetrated all six samples. SEM‐EDS elemental mapping was used to study the location of caesium in the samples in detail with quantitative mineral information. Precipitated CsCl was found in the connected pore space in Olkiluoto veined gneiss and in lesser amounts in Grimsel granodiorite. Only a very small amount of precipitated CsCl was observed in the Grimsel granodiorite samples. In Olkiluoto veined gneiss caesium was found in pinitised areas of cordierite grains. In the pinitised areas caesium was found in notable excess compared to chloride, possibly due to the combination of small pore size and negatively charged surfaces. In addition, elevated concentrations of caesium were found in kaolinite and sphalerite phases. The findings concerning the location of CsCl were congruent with X‐ray microtomography.

KW - Connected porosity

KW - crystalline rock

KW - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

KW - scanning electron microscopy

KW - X-ray microtomography

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U2 - 10.1111/jmi.12661

DO - 10.1111/jmi.12661

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JF - Journal of Microscopy

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