Immobilized cellulose nanospheres enable rapid antigen detection in lateral flow immunoassays

Katariina Solin, Marco Beaumont, Maryam Borghei, Hannes Orelma, Pascal Mertens, Orlando J. Rojas (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Rapid diagnostic systems are essential in controlling the spread of viral pathogens and efficient patient management. The available technologies for low-cost viral antigen testing have several limitations, including a lack of accuracy and sensitivity. Here, we introduce a platform based on cellulose II nanoparticles (oppositely charged NPan and NPcat) for effective control of surface protein interactions, leading to rapid and sensitive antigen tests. Passivation against non-specific adsorption and augmented immobilization of sensing antibodies is achieved by adjusting the electrostatic charge of the nanoparticles. The interactions affecting the performance of the system are investigated by microgravimetry and confocal imaging. As a proof-of-concept test, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid sensing was carried out by using saliva-wicking by channels that were stencil-printed on paper. We conclude that inkjet-printed NPcat elicits strong optical signals, visible after a few minutes, opening the opportunity for cost-effective and rapid diagnostic. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2353–2365
Number of pages13
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cellulose nanoparticles
  • Coronavirus antigen test
  • Immunoassays
  • Paper-based diagnostics
  • Patterning
  • Protein interactions


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