In the framework of the CCSP R&D program, the regulatory gaps have been assessed at VTT using the current monitoring rules for capture, pipeline transportation and geological storage of CO2 as a benchmark. The scope of the presented work includes: (i) definition of CO2 emissions from ship transportation of CO2; (ii) review of EU regulations on MRV of maritime CO2 emissions; and (iii) review of the MRV regulation on capture, transport and geological storage of CO2 under the EU-ETS. The considered activities related to ship transportation of CO2 are liquefaction and intermediate storage with recirculation loop for boil-off CO2, loading and unloading facilities and CO2 transportation and handling during the ship voyage. Identification of the regulatory gaps, based on the above, shows what is needed to enable ship transportation of CO2 for geological storage in Europe. Based on the results, maritime transportation for CCS could be made possible with very limited new emission monitoring and verification practices. Also the trade-offs of using an MRV regulation analogous to pipeline transportation of CO2 is discussed in the results.
- emission trading scheme
- reporting and verification of emissions
- ship transportation of CO2