The effects of Fe and Al on peat combustion and the formation of nitrogen oxides were studied under conditions of rapid combustion in an entrained flow reactor, and under conditions of slow combustion in a thermobalance and a differential scanning calorimeter. Iron had a strong catalytic effect on both the slow and rapid combustion, and it decreased the ratio of N2O to NO in the combustion gases. A decrease in the content of inorganic compounds decreased reactivity, probably because of the decrease in iron content. Aluminium did not have a detectable catalytic effect on the combustion rate but it depressed the formation of nitrogen oxides slightly. The chemical treatment to increase the contents of Fe and Al and decrease the ash content had little effect on the composition of the organic part of the peat.