Improved Fire Retardancy of Cellulose Fibres via Deposition of Nitrogen-Modified Biopolyphenols

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
47 Downloads (Pure)


Driven by concerns over the health and environmental impacts of currently used fire retardants (FRs), recent years have seen strong demand for alternative safer and sustainable bio-based FRs. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of nitrogen-modified biopolyphenols as FRs for cellulosic natural fibres that could be used in low-density cellulose insulations. We describe the preparation and characterisation of nitrogen-modified lignin and tannin containing over 10% nitrogen as well as the treatment of cellulose pulp fibres with combinations of lignin or tannin and adsorption-enhancing retention aids. Combining lignin or tannin with a mixture of commercial bio-based flocculant (cationised tannin) and anionic retention chemical allowed for a nearly fourfold increase in lignin adsorption onto cellulosic pulp. The nitrogen-modified biopolyphenols showed significant improvement in heat release parameters in micro-scale combustion calorimetry (MCC) testing compared with their unmodified counterparts. Moreover, the adsorption of nitrogen-modified lignin or tannin onto cellulose fibres decreased the maximum heat release rate and total heat release compared with cellulose reference by 15–23%. A further positive finding was that the temperature at the peak heat release rate did not change. These results show the potential of nitrogen-modified biopolyphenols to improve fire-retarding properties of cellulosic products.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3741
Number of pages13
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cellulose
  • fire performance
  • fire retardant
  • lignin
  • micro-scale combustion calorimetry
  • modification
  • nitrogen
  • pulp
  • retention aid
  • tannin


Dive into the research topics of 'Improved Fire Retardancy of Cellulose Fibres via Deposition of Nitrogen-Modified Biopolyphenols'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this