Improving mechanical properties of novel flax/tannin composites through different chemical treatments

J. Zhu, H. Zhu, Kirsi Immonen, J. Brighton, H. Abhyankar (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Due to the inherent environmental benefits of using renewable materials, mimosa tannin resin (a natural phenolic resin) reinforced by flax fibres could offer desirable characteristics (lightweight, economic and low environmental impact) aiming at reducing carbon footprint of superlight electric vehicles. The non-woven flax mats were chemically treated (alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment) to prepare tannin composites through compression moulding (130 °C/35 min/1.5 MPa). The change in fibre morphology was seen in SEM (scanning electronic microscope) images. The treatments (except enzymatic) showed significant improvement in tensile properties, along with enhancement (acetylation) in flexural properties, but little effect on impact resistance for all treatments. APS (aminopropyl triethoxy siloxane) treated composites showed highest tensile strength of 60 MPa and modulus of 7.5 GPa. BTCA (butanetetracarboxylic acid) treatment led to the highest flexural strength of up to 70 MPa. NaOH treatment retained the impact failure force of about 0.5 kN and sustained the saturation energy (4.86 J) compared to untreated composites (4.80 J).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-354
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Volume67
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

composite materials
flax
chemical treatment
tannins
mechanical properties
enzymatic treatment
acetylation
resins
carbon footprint
Mimosa
tensile strength
acid treatment
strength (mechanics)
alkalis
microscopes
ecosystem services
electronics
environmental impact
economics
energy

Keywords

  • flax Bio-composites
  • tannin
  • mechanical performances and surface treatments

Cite this

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title = "Improving mechanical properties of novel flax/tannin composites through different chemical treatments",
abstract = "Due to the inherent environmental benefits of using renewable materials, mimosa tannin resin (a natural phenolic resin) reinforced by flax fibres could offer desirable characteristics (lightweight, economic and low environmental impact) aiming at reducing carbon footprint of superlight electric vehicles. The non-woven flax mats were chemically treated (alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment) to prepare tannin composites through compression moulding (130 °C/35 min/1.5 MPa). The change in fibre morphology was seen in SEM (scanning electronic microscope) images. The treatments (except enzymatic) showed significant improvement in tensile properties, along with enhancement (acetylation) in flexural properties, but little effect on impact resistance for all treatments. APS (aminopropyl triethoxy siloxane) treated composites showed highest tensile strength of 60 MPa and modulus of 7.5 GPa. BTCA (butanetetracarboxylic acid) treatment led to the highest flexural strength of up to 70 MPa. NaOH treatment retained the impact failure force of about 0.5 kN and sustained the saturation energy (4.86 J) compared to untreated composites (4.80 J).",
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author = "J. Zhu and H. Zhu and Kirsi Immonen and J. Brighton and H. Abhyankar",
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doi = "10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.01.052",
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Improving mechanical properties of novel flax/tannin composites through different chemical treatments. / Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Immonen, Kirsi; Brighton, J.; Abhyankar, H. (Corresponding Author).

In: Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 67, 2015, p. 346-354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improving mechanical properties of novel flax/tannin composites through different chemical treatments

AU - Zhu, J.

AU - Zhu, H.

AU - Immonen, Kirsi

AU - Brighton, J.

AU - Abhyankar, H.

N1 - Project code: 70473

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Due to the inherent environmental benefits of using renewable materials, mimosa tannin resin (a natural phenolic resin) reinforced by flax fibres could offer desirable characteristics (lightweight, economic and low environmental impact) aiming at reducing carbon footprint of superlight electric vehicles. The non-woven flax mats were chemically treated (alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment) to prepare tannin composites through compression moulding (130 °C/35 min/1.5 MPa). The change in fibre morphology was seen in SEM (scanning electronic microscope) images. The treatments (except enzymatic) showed significant improvement in tensile properties, along with enhancement (acetylation) in flexural properties, but little effect on impact resistance for all treatments. APS (aminopropyl triethoxy siloxane) treated composites showed highest tensile strength of 60 MPa and modulus of 7.5 GPa. BTCA (butanetetracarboxylic acid) treatment led to the highest flexural strength of up to 70 MPa. NaOH treatment retained the impact failure force of about 0.5 kN and sustained the saturation energy (4.86 J) compared to untreated composites (4.80 J).

AB - Due to the inherent environmental benefits of using renewable materials, mimosa tannin resin (a natural phenolic resin) reinforced by flax fibres could offer desirable characteristics (lightweight, economic and low environmental impact) aiming at reducing carbon footprint of superlight electric vehicles. The non-woven flax mats were chemically treated (alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment) to prepare tannin composites through compression moulding (130 °C/35 min/1.5 MPa). The change in fibre morphology was seen in SEM (scanning electronic microscope) images. The treatments (except enzymatic) showed significant improvement in tensile properties, along with enhancement (acetylation) in flexural properties, but little effect on impact resistance for all treatments. APS (aminopropyl triethoxy siloxane) treated composites showed highest tensile strength of 60 MPa and modulus of 7.5 GPa. BTCA (butanetetracarboxylic acid) treatment led to the highest flexural strength of up to 70 MPa. NaOH treatment retained the impact failure force of about 0.5 kN and sustained the saturation energy (4.86 J) compared to untreated composites (4.80 J).

KW - flax Bio-composites

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KW - mechanical performances and surface treatments

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DO - 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.01.052

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SN - 0926-6690

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