In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry

Anders Strand, Lari Vähäsalo, Annika Ketola, Kristian Salminen, Elias Retulainen, Anna Sundberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) from common papermaking additives were prepared at different cation/anion ratios, resulting in colloidal light scattering particles. The polycations were cationic starches and polyDADMACs, while the polyanions were different carboxymethyl celluloses. The PECs were studied by turbidity measurements, as well as by flow cytometry (FCM). Turbidity maxima were detected close to the theoretical neutralization point of the polycation and polyanion. The turbidity response of the PEC mixtures varied with polyelectrolyte charge density. The PECs were in most cases quite stable over 24 h, but certain combinations resulted in unstable particles over time. Flow cytometry of PECs revealed clear populations of hydrophilic particles. The light scattering properties of PECs in side direction (SSC) and forward direction (FSC) were recorded for the different PEC combinations. The determined FSC and SSC offered information about very different PEC properties, and a new term was suggested for better understanding the mechanisms behind PEC formation; FSC/SSC. It was suggested that the determined FSC/SSC values were connected to the structural density of different particles. The premise was tested by analyses of solid, dense particles as well as swollen, soft particles. In addition to this, the hydrophobicity of PECs was determined by FCM. It was seen that the PECs were quite hydrophilic overall and that the measured hydrophobicities were lowest around the theoretical point of neutralization. Finally, the behavior of a coagulating PEC mixture as a function of contact time was studied with FCM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3781-3795
Number of pages15
JournalCellulose
Volume25
Issue number7
Early online date10 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Flow cytometry
Polyelectrolytes
Turbidity
Hydrophobicity
Complex Mixtures
Light scattering
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium
Papermaking
Charge density
Starch
Anions
Cations
Cellulose
Negative ions

Keywords

  • polyelectrolite complse
  • Cationic starch
  • CMC
  • flow cytometry
  • light scattering
  • structural density
  • hydrophobicity

Cite this

Strand, Anders ; Vähäsalo, Lari ; Ketola, Annika ; Salminen, Kristian ; Retulainen, Elias ; Sundberg, Anna . / In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry. In: Cellulose. 2018 ; Vol. 25, No. 7. pp. 3781-3795.
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In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry. / Strand, Anders ; Vähäsalo, Lari; Ketola, Annika; Salminen, Kristian; Retulainen, Elias; Sundberg, Anna .

In: Cellulose, Vol. 25, No. 7, 01.07.2018, p. 3781-3795.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry

AU - Strand, Anders

AU - Vähäsalo, Lari

AU - Ketola, Annika

AU - Salminen, Kristian

AU - Retulainen, Elias

AU - Sundberg, Anna

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) from common papermaking additives were prepared at different cation/anion ratios, resulting in colloidal light scattering particles. The polycations were cationic starches and polyDADMACs, while the polyanions were different carboxymethyl celluloses. The PECs were studied by turbidity measurements, as well as by flow cytometry (FCM). Turbidity maxima were detected close to the theoretical neutralization point of the polycation and polyanion. The turbidity response of the PEC mixtures varied with polyelectrolyte charge density. The PECs were in most cases quite stable over 24 h, but certain combinations resulted in unstable particles over time. Flow cytometry of PECs revealed clear populations of hydrophilic particles. The light scattering properties of PECs in side direction (SSC) and forward direction (FSC) were recorded for the different PEC combinations. The determined FSC and SSC offered information about very different PEC properties, and a new term was suggested for better understanding the mechanisms behind PEC formation; FSC/SSC. It was suggested that the determined FSC/SSC values were connected to the structural density of different particles. The premise was tested by analyses of solid, dense particles as well as swollen, soft particles. In addition to this, the hydrophobicity of PECs was determined by FCM. It was seen that the PECs were quite hydrophilic overall and that the measured hydrophobicities were lowest around the theoretical point of neutralization. Finally, the behavior of a coagulating PEC mixture as a function of contact time was studied with FCM.

AB - Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) from common papermaking additives were prepared at different cation/anion ratios, resulting in colloidal light scattering particles. The polycations were cationic starches and polyDADMACs, while the polyanions were different carboxymethyl celluloses. The PECs were studied by turbidity measurements, as well as by flow cytometry (FCM). Turbidity maxima were detected close to the theoretical neutralization point of the polycation and polyanion. The turbidity response of the PEC mixtures varied with polyelectrolyte charge density. The PECs were in most cases quite stable over 24 h, but certain combinations resulted in unstable particles over time. Flow cytometry of PECs revealed clear populations of hydrophilic particles. The light scattering properties of PECs in side direction (SSC) and forward direction (FSC) were recorded for the different PEC combinations. The determined FSC and SSC offered information about very different PEC properties, and a new term was suggested for better understanding the mechanisms behind PEC formation; FSC/SSC. It was suggested that the determined FSC/SSC values were connected to the structural density of different particles. The premise was tested by analyses of solid, dense particles as well as swollen, soft particles. In addition to this, the hydrophobicity of PECs was determined by FCM. It was seen that the PECs were quite hydrophilic overall and that the measured hydrophobicities were lowest around the theoretical point of neutralization. Finally, the behavior of a coagulating PEC mixture as a function of contact time was studied with FCM.

KW - polyelectrolite complse

KW - Cationic starch

KW - CMC

KW - flow cytometry

KW - light scattering

KW - structural density

KW - hydrophobicity

U2 - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1

DO - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 3781

EP - 3795

JO - Cellulose

JF - Cellulose

SN - 0969-0239

IS - 7

ER -