In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed chicken feathers

S. A. Adler (Corresponding Author), R. Slizyte, K. Honkapää, A. K. Løes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Beta-keratin in poultry feathers is a structural protein that is resistant to degradation due to disulfide and hydrogen bonds. Feather meal can be a valuable feed compound if the digestibility can be increased. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chemical, enzymatic, and pressure-thermic treatments for chicken feathers on solubility, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and amino acid composition of solubilized and residual fractions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, models for solubility and IVPD were developed including the above factors applying a central composite face-centered design. Addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and autoclaving time affected solubility and IVPD of the feather hydrolysates, but not addition of keratinolytic enzyme. In experiment 2, 7 combinations of the hydrolysis factors NaOH, Na2SO3, and autoclaving time with a predicted IVPD of 900 g/kg of DM, calculated for the sum of solubilized and residual feather fractions, were included to measure effects on IVPD and amino acid composition in each fraction. The IVPD values were higher for solubilized than residual fractions when treated with NaOH and autoclaving, but no differences were found when treated with Na2SO3 and autoclaving. Losses of cystine were substantial for all treatments, but lower for Na2SO3 than for NaOH. Furthermore, use of lower Na2SO3 concentration and longer autoclaving time reduced losses of cystine. Compared with NaOH treatments, Na2SO3 gave lower losses of threonine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. With reference to the ideal protein profile for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the treatments with 60 or 90 min autoclaving and 0.36 or 0.21% Na2SO3 had the highest chemical scores. The scores were generally higher for amino acids in residual than solubilized fractions, but with 90 min autoclaving and 0.21% Na2SO3 differences were small. In conclusion, hydrolysis of chicken feathers with low concentrations of Na2SO3 combined with autoclaving results in feather meal with high nutritional value for Atlantic salmon; separation of solubilized and residual fractions is not necessary.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3343-3357
Number of pages15
JournalPoultry Science
Volume97
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2018
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Fingerprint

autoclaving
pepsin
amino acid composition
feathers
digestible protein
digestibility
chickens
Salmo salar
feather meal
solubility
cystine
hydrolysis
sodium sulfite
keratin
structural proteins
sodium hydroxide
hydrolysates
sulfides
threonine
serine

Keywords

  • amino acid
  • avian protein
  • pepsin A
  • animal food
  • Salmo salar
  • solubility
  • protein degration
  • chicken

Cite this

@article{c74b95686f0d4a9896109d9aac5e7dcb,
title = "In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed chicken feathers",
abstract = "Beta-keratin in poultry feathers is a structural protein that is resistant to degradation due to disulfide and hydrogen bonds. Feather meal can be a valuable feed compound if the digestibility can be increased. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chemical, enzymatic, and pressure-thermic treatments for chicken feathers on solubility, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and amino acid composition of solubilized and residual fractions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, models for solubility and IVPD were developed including the above factors applying a central composite face-centered design. Addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and autoclaving time affected solubility and IVPD of the feather hydrolysates, but not addition of keratinolytic enzyme. In experiment 2, 7 combinations of the hydrolysis factors NaOH, Na2SO3, and autoclaving time with a predicted IVPD of 900 g/kg of DM, calculated for the sum of solubilized and residual feather fractions, were included to measure effects on IVPD and amino acid composition in each fraction. The IVPD values were higher for solubilized than residual fractions when treated with NaOH and autoclaving, but no differences were found when treated with Na2SO3 and autoclaving. Losses of cystine were substantial for all treatments, but lower for Na2SO3 than for NaOH. Furthermore, use of lower Na2SO3 concentration and longer autoclaving time reduced losses of cystine. Compared with NaOH treatments, Na2SO3 gave lower losses of threonine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. With reference to the ideal protein profile for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the treatments with 60 or 90 min autoclaving and 0.36 or 0.21{\%} Na2SO3 had the highest chemical scores. The scores were generally higher for amino acids in residual than solubilized fractions, but with 90 min autoclaving and 0.21{\%} Na2SO3 differences were small. In conclusion, hydrolysis of chicken feathers with low concentrations of Na2SO3 combined with autoclaving results in feather meal with high nutritional value for Atlantic salmon; separation of solubilized and residual fractions is not necessary.",
keywords = "amino acid, avian protein, pepsin A, animal food, Salmo salar, solubility, protein degration, chicken",
author = "Adler, {S. A.} and R. Slizyte and K. Honkap{\"a}{\"a} and L{\o}es, {A. K.}",
year = "2018",
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In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed chicken feathers. / Adler, S. A. (Corresponding Author); Slizyte, R.; Honkapää, K.; Løes, A. K.

In: Poultry Science, Vol. 97, No. 9, 23.05.2018, p. 3343-3357.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed chicken feathers

AU - Adler, S. A.

AU - Slizyte, R.

AU - Honkapää, K.

AU - Løes, A. K.

PY - 2018/5/23

Y1 - 2018/5/23

N2 - Beta-keratin in poultry feathers is a structural protein that is resistant to degradation due to disulfide and hydrogen bonds. Feather meal can be a valuable feed compound if the digestibility can be increased. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chemical, enzymatic, and pressure-thermic treatments for chicken feathers on solubility, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and amino acid composition of solubilized and residual fractions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, models for solubility and IVPD were developed including the above factors applying a central composite face-centered design. Addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and autoclaving time affected solubility and IVPD of the feather hydrolysates, but not addition of keratinolytic enzyme. In experiment 2, 7 combinations of the hydrolysis factors NaOH, Na2SO3, and autoclaving time with a predicted IVPD of 900 g/kg of DM, calculated for the sum of solubilized and residual feather fractions, were included to measure effects on IVPD and amino acid composition in each fraction. The IVPD values were higher for solubilized than residual fractions when treated with NaOH and autoclaving, but no differences were found when treated with Na2SO3 and autoclaving. Losses of cystine were substantial for all treatments, but lower for Na2SO3 than for NaOH. Furthermore, use of lower Na2SO3 concentration and longer autoclaving time reduced losses of cystine. Compared with NaOH treatments, Na2SO3 gave lower losses of threonine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. With reference to the ideal protein profile for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the treatments with 60 or 90 min autoclaving and 0.36 or 0.21% Na2SO3 had the highest chemical scores. The scores were generally higher for amino acids in residual than solubilized fractions, but with 90 min autoclaving and 0.21% Na2SO3 differences were small. In conclusion, hydrolysis of chicken feathers with low concentrations of Na2SO3 combined with autoclaving results in feather meal with high nutritional value for Atlantic salmon; separation of solubilized and residual fractions is not necessary.

AB - Beta-keratin in poultry feathers is a structural protein that is resistant to degradation due to disulfide and hydrogen bonds. Feather meal can be a valuable feed compound if the digestibility can be increased. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chemical, enzymatic, and pressure-thermic treatments for chicken feathers on solubility, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and amino acid composition of solubilized and residual fractions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, models for solubility and IVPD were developed including the above factors applying a central composite face-centered design. Addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and autoclaving time affected solubility and IVPD of the feather hydrolysates, but not addition of keratinolytic enzyme. In experiment 2, 7 combinations of the hydrolysis factors NaOH, Na2SO3, and autoclaving time with a predicted IVPD of 900 g/kg of DM, calculated for the sum of solubilized and residual feather fractions, were included to measure effects on IVPD and amino acid composition in each fraction. The IVPD values were higher for solubilized than residual fractions when treated with NaOH and autoclaving, but no differences were found when treated with Na2SO3 and autoclaving. Losses of cystine were substantial for all treatments, but lower for Na2SO3 than for NaOH. Furthermore, use of lower Na2SO3 concentration and longer autoclaving time reduced losses of cystine. Compared with NaOH treatments, Na2SO3 gave lower losses of threonine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. With reference to the ideal protein profile for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the treatments with 60 or 90 min autoclaving and 0.36 or 0.21% Na2SO3 had the highest chemical scores. The scores were generally higher for amino acids in residual than solubilized fractions, but with 90 min autoclaving and 0.21% Na2SO3 differences were small. In conclusion, hydrolysis of chicken feathers with low concentrations of Na2SO3 combined with autoclaving results in feather meal with high nutritional value for Atlantic salmon; separation of solubilized and residual fractions is not necessary.

KW - amino acid

KW - avian protein

KW - pepsin A

KW - animal food

KW - Salmo salar

KW - solubility

KW - protein degration

KW - chicken

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U2 - 10.3382/ps/pey175

DO - 10.3382/ps/pey175

M3 - Article

C2 - 29796647

AN - SCOPUS:85055075113

VL - 97

SP - 3343

EP - 3357

JO - Poultry Science

JF - Poultry Science

SN - 0032-5791

IS - 9

ER -